Chapter 3. Lighting in Machine Vision

  1. Prof. Dr. Alexander Hornberg
  1. I. Jahr

Published Online: 23 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527610136.ch3

Handbook of Machine Vision

Handbook of Machine Vision

How to Cite

Jahr, I. (2006) Lighting in Machine Vision, in Handbook of Machine Vision (ed A. Hornberg), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527610136.ch3

Editor Information

  1. Hochschule Esslingen, FB Mechatronik u. Eletrotechnik, Germany

Author Information

  1. Vision & Control GmbH, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 JAN 2007
  2. Published Print: 6 JUL 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527405848

Online ISBN: 9783527610136



  • lighting in machine vision;
  • demands on machine vision lighting;
  • light used in machine vision;
  • interaction of test object and light;
  • rules and laws of light distribution;
  • light filters;
  • lighting techniques;
  • combined lighting techniques;
  • lighting control


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

    • Prologue

    • The Involvement of Lighting in the Complex Machine Vision Solution

  • Demands on Machine Vision lighting

  • Light used in Machine Vision

    • What is Light? Axioms of Light

    • Light and Light Perception

    • Light Sources for Machine Vision

      • Incandescent Lamps/Halogen Lamps

      • Metal Vapor Lamps

      • Xenon Lamps

      • Fluorescent Lamps

      • LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes)

      • Lasers

    • The Light Sources in Comparison

    • Considerations for Light Sources: Lifetime, Aging, Drift

      • Lifetime

      • Aging and Drift

  • Interaction of Test Object and Light

    • Risk Factor Test Object

      • What Does the Test Object do With the Incoming Light?

      • Reflection/reflectance/scattering

      • Total Reflection

      • Transmission/transmittance

      • Absorption/absorbance

      • Diffraction

      • Refraction

    • Light Color and Part Color

      • Visible Light (VIS) – Monochromatic Light

      • Visible Light (VIS) – White Light

      • Infrared Light (IR)

      • Ultraviolet Light (UV)

      • Polarized Light

  • Basic Rules and Laws of Light Distribution

    • Basic Physical Quantities of Light

    • The Photometric Inverse Square Law

    • The Constancy of Luminance

    • What Light Arrives at the Sensor – Light Transmission Through the Lens

    • Light Distribution of Lighting Components

    • Contrast

    • Exposure

  • Light Filters

    • Characteristic Values of Light Filters

    • Influences of Light Filters on the Optical Path

    • Types of Light Filters

    • Anti-Reflective Coatings (AR)

    • Light Filters for Machine Vision

      • UV Blocking Filter

      • Daylight Suppression Filter

      • IR Suppression Filter

      • Neutral Filter/Neutral Density Filter/Gray Filter

      • Polarization Filter

      • Color Filters

      • Filter Combinations

  • Lighting Techniques and Their Use

    • How to Find a Suitable Lighting?

    • Planning the Lighting Solution – Influence Factors

    • Lighting Systematics

      • Directional Properties of the Light

      • Arrangement of the Lighting

      • Properties of the Illuminated Field

    • The Lighting Techniques in Detail

      • Diffuse Bright Field Incident Light

      • Directed Bright Field Incident Light

      • Telecentric Bright Field Incident Light

      • Structured Bright Field Incident Light

      • Diffuse/Directed Partial Bright Field Incident Light

      • Diffuse/Directed Dark Field Incident Light

      • The Limits of the Incident Lighting

      • Diffuse Bright Field Transmitted Lighting

      • Directed Bright Field Transmitted Lighting

      • Telecentric Bright Field Transmitted Lighting

      • Diffuse/Directed Transmitted Dark Field Lighting

    • Combined Lighting Techniques

  • Lighting Control

    • Reasons for Light Control – the Environmental Industrial Conditions

    • Electrical Control

      • Stable Operation

      • Brightness Control

      • Temporal Control: Static-Pulse-Flash

      • Some Considerations for the Use of Flash Light

      • Temporal and Local Control: Adaptive Lighting

    • Geometrical Control

      • Lighting from Large Distances

      • Light Deflection

    • Suppression of Ambient and Extraneous Light – Measures for a Stable Lighting

  • Lighting Perspectives for the Future