Chapter 1. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

  1. Prof. Dr. Thomas J. J. Müller2 and
  2. Prof. Dr. Uwe H. F. Bunz3
  1. Andreas Hirsch and
  2. Otto Vostrowsky

Published Online: 16 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527610266.ch1

Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications

Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications

How to Cite

Hirsch, A. and Vostrowsky, O. (2006) Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes, in Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications (eds T. J. J. Müller and U. H. F. Bunz), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527610266.ch1

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Institut für Organische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie, Universitätsstr. 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany

  2. 3

    Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Atlanta, GA 30332-440, USA

Author Information

  1. Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestr. 42, 91054 Erlangen, Germany

  1. A List of Abbreviations can be found at the end of this chapter.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 JAN 2007
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527313020

Online ISBN: 9783527610266



  • 3-D carbon-rich π-systems;
  • functionalization of carbon nanotubes;
  • halogenation of carbon nanotubes;
  • covalent functionalization;
  • oxidation of carbon nanotubes;
  • addition of radicals;
  • functionalization through cycloadditions;
  • noncovalent exohedral functionalization;
  • functionalization with biomolecules;
  • endohedral functionalization


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes – A New Carbon Allotrope

  • Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

  • Covalent Functionalization

    • Halogenation of Carbon Nanotubes

      • Fluorination of Carbon Nanotubes

      • Chlorination of Carbon Nanotubes

      • Bromination of MWCNTs

      • Chemical Derivatization of “Fluoronanotubes”

    • Oxidation of CNTs – Oxidative Purification

      • Carboxylation of CNTs

      • Defect Functionalization – Transformation of Carboxylic Functions

    • Hydrogenation of Carbon Nanotubes

    • Addition of Radicals

    • Addition of Nucleophilic Carbenes

    • Sidewall Functionalization Through Electrophilic Addition

    • Functionalization Through Cycloadditions

      • Addition of Carbenes

      • Addition of Nitrenes

      • Nucleophilic Cyclopropanation – Bingel Reaction

      • Azomethine Ylides

      • [4+2]-Cycloaddition – Diels–Alder Reaction

      • Sidewall Osmylation of Individual SWCNTs

    • Aryl Diazonium Chemistry – Electrochemical Modification of Nanotubes

    • Reductive Alkylation and Arylation of Carbon Nanotubes

    • Addition of Carbanions – Reactions with Alkyllithium

    • Covalent Functionalization by Polymerization – “Grafting To” and “Grafting From”

  • Noncovalent Exohedral Functionalization – Functionalization with Biomolecules

  • Endohedral Functionalization

  • Conclusions

  • Experimental