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Fullerenes in Photodynamic Therapy

  1. Sulbha K. Sharma1,
  2. Ying-Ying Huang1,2,3,
  3. Pawel Mroz1,2,
  4. Tim Wharton4,
  5. Long Y. Chiang5,
  6. Michael R. Hamblin1,2,3

Published Online: 15 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527610419.ntls0244

Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences

Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences

How to Cite

Sharma, S. K., Huang, Y.-Y., Mroz, P., Wharton, T., Chiang, L. Y. and Hamblin, M. R. 2012. Fullerenes in Photodynamic Therapy. Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Boston, MA, USA

  2. 2

    Harvard Medical School, Department of Dermatology, Boston, MA, USA

  3. 3

    Center of Guangxi Medical University, Aesthetic, Esthetic and Plastic, Nanning, China

  4. 4

    Lynntech Inc., College Station, TX, USA

  5. 5

    University of Massachusetts, Department of Chemistry, Lowell, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 FEB 2012


The sections in this article are

  • Introduction
  • Photodynamic Therapy
    • Traditional Photosensitizers
    • Photophysics and Photochemistry in PDT
    • Anticancer Mechanism of PDT
      • Cellular Effects
      • In Vivo Effects
    • Antimicrobial Mechanism of PDT
  • Fullerenes as Photosensitizers
    • Photophysics of Fullerenes
    • Photochemistry of Fullerenes
    • Interactions of Fullerenes with DNA
    • Drug-Delivery Strategies for Fullerenes
    • Strategies to Overcome the Unfavorable Spectral Absorption of Fullerenes
      • Covalent Attachment of Light-Harvesting Antennae to Fullerenes
      • Two-Photon PDT
  • Anticancer Effects of Fullerenes
    • In Vitro PDT with Fullerenes
    • In Vivo PDT with Fullerenes
  • Fullerenes for Antimicrobial Photoinactivation
    • Photoinactivation of Viruses
    • Photoinactivation of Bacteria and Other Pathogens
  • Summary and Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments


  • fullerenes;
  • photodynamic therapy;
  • reactive oxygen species;
  • singlet oxygen;
  • superoxide;
  • photochemical mechanism;
  • phototoxicity;
  • two-photon absorption