Chapter 12. Verdazyl-Mediated Polymerization of Styrene

  1. Prof. Dr. Michael Buback3 and
  2. A. M. van Herk4
  1. Steven J. Teertstra1,
  2. Eric Chen1,
  3. Delphine Chan-Seng1,
  4. Peter O. Otieno2,
  5. Robin G. Hicks2 and
  6. Michael K. Georges1

Published Online: 31 MAY 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527610860.ch12

Radical Polymerization: Kinetics and Mechanism, Volume 248

Radical Polymerization: Kinetics and Mechanism, Volume 248

How to Cite

Teertstra, S. J., Chen, E., Chan-Seng, D., Otieno, P. O., Hicks, R. G. and Georges, M. K. (2007) Verdazyl-Mediated Polymerization of Styrene, in Radical Polymerization: Kinetics and Mechanism, Volume 248 (eds M. Buback and A. M. van Herk), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527610860.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Institute of Physical Chemistry, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany

  2. 4

    Laboratory for Polymer Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd. N., Mississauga, Ontario, L5L 1C6, Canada

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry, Univeristy of Victoria, PO Box 3065, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 MAY 2007
  2. Published Print: 13 APR 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527320561

Online ISBN: 9783527610860



  • living-radical polymerization;
  • verdazyl radcials


Attempted controlled polymerizations of styrene, conducted in the presence of either 1,3,5-triphenyl-6-oxoverdazyl or 1,5-dimethyl-3-phenyl-6-oxoverdazyl radicals initiated with benzoyl peroxide or 1,1′-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) were universally unsuccessful regardless of the reaction temperature and the initiator/ verdazyl molar ratio. No improvement was observed using a verdazyl-terminated styrene initiator adduct prepared by an exchange reaction between a styrene-TEMPO alkoxyamine and a 1,3,5-triphenyl-6-oxoverdazyl radical. However, controlled polymerizations of styrene were achieved at 125 °C using a styrene-verdazyl adduct containing the 1,5-dimethyl-3-phenyl-6-oxoverdazyl radical. Polydispersity indexes remained low throughout the polymerizations and plots of number average molecular weight (n) versus time were linear. However, the actual n values were considerably lower than theoretical, an unexpected result that is under investigation.