Chapter 23. Functional Brain Imaging

  1. Prof. Dr. Rolf Dermietzel2,
  2. Prof. Dr. David C. Spray3 and
  3. Prof. Dr. Maiken Nedergaard4
  1. Gerald A. Dienel

Published Online: 31 MAY 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527611225.ch23

Blood-Brain Barriers: From Ontogeny to Artificial Interfaces, Volume 1

Blood-Brain Barriers: From Ontogeny to Artificial Interfaces, Volume 1

How to Cite

Dienel, G. A. (2006) Functional Brain Imaging, in Blood-Brain Barriers: From Ontogeny to Artificial Interfaces, Volume 1 (eds R. Dermietzel, D. C. Spray and M. Nedergaard), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527611225.ch23

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Neuroanatomy and Molecular Brain Research, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany

  2. 3

    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1410 Pelham Parkway S, Bronx, NY 10464, USA

  3. 4

    School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA

Author Information

  1. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Shorey Building, 4301 W. Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 MAY 2007
  2. Published Print: 20 FEB 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527310883

Online ISBN: 9783527611225

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Keywords:

  • vascular perfusion;
  • functional brain imaging;
  • molecular imaging;
  • brain imaging methodologies;
  • imaging biological processes;
  • living brain;
  • watching brain work;
  • measuring brain work;
  • molecular probes;
  • imaging assays;
  • optical imaging of functional activity;
  • extrinsic fluorescent compounds;
  • intrinsic fluorescent compounds;
  • dynamic movement of cellular processes;
  • dynamic movement of cell types;
  • exogenous genes;
  • exogenous cells;
  • therapeutic efficacy

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Molecular Imaging of Biological Processes in Living Brain

    • Introduction

    • Molecular Imaging

    • Influence of Blood-Brain Interface on Functional Imaging

  • Overview of Brain Imaging Methodologies

    • Computed Tomography

    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • Functional MRI

    • Radionuclide Imaging

    • Optical Imaging

    • Thermal and Optico-Acoustic Imaging

    • Summary

  • Imaging Biological Processes in Living Brain: Watching and Measuring Brain Work

    • Functional Activity, Brain Work, and Metabolic Imaging

    • Quantitative Measurement of Regional Blood Flow and Metabolism in Living Brain

      • Assays at the Blood-Brain Interface: Global Methods

      • Highly Diffusible Tracers to Measure CBF

      • Metabolizable Glucose Analogs to Measure Hexokinase Activity and CMRglc

      • Non-Metabolizable Analogs to Assay Transport and Tissue Concentration

      • Cellular Basis of Glucose Utilization

      • Acetate is an “Astrocyte Reporter Molecule”

      • Summary

  • Molecular Probes are Used for a Broad Spectrum of Imaging Assays in Living Brain

    • Potassium Uptake and CMRglc During Functional Activation

    • Multimodal Assays in Serial Sections of Brain

    • Imaging Human Brain Tumors

    • Functional Imaging Studies of Sensory and Cognitive Activity Reveal Disproportionate Increases in CBF and CMRglc Compared to CMRO2 During Activation

    • Imaging Brain Maturation and Aging, Neurotransmitter Systems, and Effects of Drugs of Abuse

    • Imaging Electrolyte Transport Across the Blood-Brain Interface and Shifts in Calcium Homeostasis Under Pathophysiological Conditions

    • Summary

  • Optical Imaging of Functional Activity by Means of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Fluorescent Compounds

  • Tracking Dynamic Movement of Cellular Processes and Cell Types

  • Evaluation of Exogenous Genes, Cells, and Therapeutic Efficacy

  • Summary and Perspectives

  • References