Chapter 13. High-Resolution Experimental Methods

  1. Prof. Wolfgang Pfeiler
  1. Bogdan Sepiol4,
  2. Karl F. Ludwig Jr.1,
  3. Guido Schmitz2 and
  4. James M. Howe3

Published Online: 20 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527614196.ch13

Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference

Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference

How to Cite

Sepiol, B., Ludwig, K. F., Schmitz, G. and Howe, J. M. (2007) High-Resolution Experimental Methods, in Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference (ed W. Pfeiler), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527614196.ch13

Editor Information

  1. University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Dynamics of Condensed Systems, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Author Information

  1. 1

    Boston University, Physics Department, 590 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA

  2. 2

    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Materialphysik, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 10, 48149 Münster, Germany

  3. 3

    University of Virginia, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745, USA

  4. 4

    University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Dynamics of Condensed Systems, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 SEP 2007
  2. Published Print: 11 JUL 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527313211

Online ISBN: 9783527614196



  • alloy physics;
  • high-resolution experimental methods;
  • scattering methods;
  • time-resolved diffraction;
  • high-resolution microscopy


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • High-Resolution Scattering Methods and Time-Resolved Diffraction

    • Introduction: Theoretical Concepts, X-Ray, and Neutron Scattering Methods

    • Magnetic Scattering

      • Magnetic Neutron Scattering

      • Magnetic X-Ray Scattering

    • Spectroscopy

      • Coherent Time-Resolved X-Ray Scattering

        • Homodyne X-Ray Studies of Equilibrium Fluctuation Dynamics

        • Heterodyne X-Ray Studies of Equilibrium Fluctuation Dynamics

        • Studies of Critical Fluctuations with Microbeams

        • Coherent X-Ray Studies of the Kinetics of Nonequilibrium Systems

        • Coherent X-Ray Studies of Microscopic Reversibility

      • Phonon Excitations

        • Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

        • Nuclear Inelastic Scattering

      • Quasielastic Scattering: Diffusion

        • Quasielastic Methods: Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Neutron Scattering

        • Nuclear Resonant Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation

        • Pure Metals and Dilute Alloys

        • Ordered Alloys

        • Amorphous Materials

    • Time-Resolved Scattering

      • Technical Capabilities

      • Time-Resolved Studies – Examples

    • Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Alloys

      • Metallic Glasses and Liquids

      • Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Crystalline Alloys

    • Surface Scattering – Atomic Segregation and Ordering near Surfaces

    • Scattering from Quasicrystals

    • Outlook

  • References

  • High-Resolution Microscopy

    • Surface Analysis by Scanning Probe Microscopy

      • Functional Principle of Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy

      • Modes of Measurement in AFM

      • Cantilever Design for the AFM

      • Exemplary Studies by Scanning Probe Microscopy

        • Chemical Contrast by STM and Surface Ordering

        • Microstructure Characterization and Surface Topology by AFM

        • Imaging of Nanomagnets by Magnetic Force Microscopy

    • High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Related Techniques

      • Principles of Image Formation in and Practical Aspects of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

        • Principles of Image Formation

        • Practical Aspects of HRTEM

      • In-Situ Hot-Stage High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

      • Examples of HRTEM Studies of Dislocation and Interphase Boundaries

        • Disclinations in Mechanically Milled Fe Powder

        • Interphase Boundaries in Metal Alloys

        • Diffuse Interface in Cu–Au

        • Partly Coherent Interfaces in Al–Cu

        • Incoherent Interfaces in Ti–Al

    • Local Analysis by Atom Probe Tomography

      • The Functional Principle of Atom Probe Tomography

      • Two-Dimensional Single-Ion Detector Systems

      • Ion Trajectories and Image Magnification

      • Tomographic Reconstruction

      • Accuracy of the Reconstruction

      • Specimen Preparation

      • Examples of Studies by Atom Probe Tomography

        • Decomposition in Supersaturated Alloys

        • Nucleation of the First Product Phase

        • Diffusion in Nanocrystalline Thin Films

        • Thermal Stability of GMR Sensor Layers

    • Future Development and Outlook

  • References