Chapter 7. Phase Equilibria and Phase Transformations

  1. Prof. Wolfgang Pfeiler
  1. Brent Fultz1 and
  2. Jeffrey J. Hoyt2

Published Online: 20 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9783527614196.ch7

Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference

Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference

How to Cite

Fultz, B. and Hoyt, J. J. (2007) Phase Equilibria and Phase Transformations, in Alloy Physics: A Comprehensive Reference (ed W. Pfeiler), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527614196.ch7

Editor Information

  1. University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Dynamics of Condensed Systems, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Vienna, Austria

Author Information

  1. 1

    California Institute of Technology, mail 138-78, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

  2. 2

    Mc Master University and Brockhouse, Institute for Materials Research, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 SEP 2007
  2. Published Print: 11 JUL 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527313211

Online ISBN: 9783527614196



  • alloy physics;
  • phase equilibria;
  • phase transformations;
  • alloy phase diagrams;
  • kinetics;
  • nucleation;
  • growth transformations;
  • spinodal decomposition;
  • martensitic transformations


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Alloy Phase Diagrams

    • Solid Solutions

    • Free Energy and the Lever Rule

    • Common Tangent Construction

    • Unmixing and Continuous Solid Solubility Phase Diagrams

    • Eutectic and Peritectic Phase Diagrams

    • More Complex Phase Diagrams

    • Atomic Ordering

    • Beyond Simple Models

    • Entropy of Configurations

    • Principles of Phonon Entropy

    • Trends of Phonon Entropy

    • Phonon Entropy at Elevated Temperatures

  • Kinetics and the Approach to Equilibrium

    • Suppressed Diffusion in the Solid (Nonequilibrium Compositions)

    • Nucleation Kinetics

    • Suppressed Diffusion in the Liquid (Glasses)

    • Suppressed Diffusion in a Solid Phase (Solid-State Amorphization)

    • Combined Reactions

    • Statistical Kinetics of Phase Transformations

    • Kinetic Pair Approximation

    • Equilibrium State of Order

    • Kinetic Paths

  • Nucleation and Growth Transformations

    • Definitions

    • Fluctuations and the Critical Nucleus

    • The Nucleation Rate

    • Time-Dependent Nucleation

    • Effect of Elastic Strain

    • Heterogeneous Nucleation

    • The Kolmogorov–Johnson–Mehl–Avrami Growth Equation

  • Spinodal Decomposition

    • Concentration Fluctuations and the Free Energy of Solution

    • The Diffusion Equation

    • Effects of Elastic Strain Energy

  • Martensitic Transformations

    • Characteristics of Martensite

    • Massive and Displacive Transformations

    • Bain Strain Mid-Lattice Invariant Shear

    • Martensite Crystallography

    • Nucleation and Dislocation Models of Martensite

    • Soft Mode Transitions, the Clapp Lattice Instability Model

  • Outlook

  • References