Chapter 18. European Interlaboratory Evaluation of an in Vitro Ocular Irritation Model (Skin2TM Model ZK1100) Using 18 Chemicals and Formulated Products

  1. Dr. Christoph A Reinhardt
  1. Peter W. Joller,
  2. Alain Coquette,
  3. Jos Noben,
  4. Raffaella Pirovano,
  5. Jacqueline A. Southee and
  6. Pamela K. Logemann

Published Online: 8 OCT 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527616053.ch18

Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition

Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition

How to Cite

Joller, P. W., Coquette, A., Noben, J., Pirovano, R., Southee, J. A. and Logemann, P. K. (1994) European Interlaboratory Evaluation of an in Vitro Ocular Irritation Model (Skin2TM Model ZK1100) Using 18 Chemicals and Formulated Products, in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527616053.ch18

Editor Information

  1. SIAT Swiss Institute for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Technopark, Pfingstweidstr. 30, CH-8005 Zürich

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 OCT 2008
  2. Published Print: 24 FEB 1994

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527300433

Online ISBN: 9783527616053

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Keywords:

  • dehydrogenase;
  • metal chlorides;
  • independent experiments;
  • irritation test;
  • aproper evaluation

Summary

To evaluate potential irritancy, four European toxicology laboratories analyzed 18 standardized test substances utilizing three different quantifiable endpoints to Skin2TM cells and tissue supernatants: a) reduction in the total number of viable cells using an MTT assay, b) induction of an inflammatory mediator using PGE2 measurements, and c) cell membrane damage using LDH release. Three test materials were chosen from each of the following categories: shampoos, alcohols, raw surfactants, metal chlorides, preservatives, and solvents. Qualitative ocular irritation scores (in vivo) were obtained for each of the materials and compared with the quantitative in vitro scores, PGE2 release, and LDH release. Within each chemical group, the MTT50 scores ranked the test materials the same as the ocular irritation scores. For example, the irritation order of baby shampoo < soft shampoo < dandruff shampoo was found both in vivo and in vitro. Similarly, both tests ranked the alcohols in the order, methanol < isopropa-nol < 1-pentanol; the surfactants in the order Tween 20 < Triton X-100 < benzalkonium chloride; the metal chlorides in the order magnesium chloride < nickel chloride < cadmium chloride; and the preservatives in the order; benzoic acid < imidazolidinyl urea < propylene glycol. The corresponding levels of PGE2 and LDH release will also be presented.