Chapter 5. The Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME): 23 Years of Campaigning for the Three Rs

  1. Dr. Christoph A Reinhardt
  1. Michael Balls and
  2. Julia H. Fentem

Published Online: 8 OCT 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527616053.ch5

Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition

Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition

How to Cite

Balls, M. and Fentem, J. H. (2008) The Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME): 23 Years of Campaigning for the Three Rs, in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527616053.ch5

Editor Information

  1. SIAT Swiss Institute for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Technopark, Pfingstweidstr. 30, CH-8005 Zürich

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 OCT 2008
  2. Published Print: 24 FEB 1994

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527300433

Online ISBN: 9783527616053

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Keywords:

  • influential;
  • significant developments;
  • animal experimentation;
  • subsequent events;
  • non-animal methods

Summary

The Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) was established in 1969, to work to relieve the suffering of animals used as subjects in biomedical research, and to promote and support research into acceptable new techniques as substitutes for the use of animals in all such research. FRAME'S contributions to progress based on the Three Rs (replacement, refinement, reduction) concept of alternatives are reviewed, with particular emphasis on FRAME'S journal ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals), the work of the FRAME Toxicity Committee, the FRAME Research Programme, the British Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and Directive 86/609/EEC, the use of non-human primates as laboratory animals, and the validation and regulatory acceptance of relevant and reliable non-animal toxicity tests and testing strategies. Finally, FRAME'S plans for the immediate future and longer-term expectations are outlined.