Chapter 13. Astrobiology Exploratory Missions and Planetary Protection Requirements

  1. Dr. Gerda Horneck and
  2. Dr. Petra Rettberg
  1. Gerda Horneck,
  2. André Debus,
  3. Peter Mani and
  4. J. Andrew Spry

Published Online: 7 FEB 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527618996.ch13

Complete Course in Astrobiology

Complete Course in Astrobiology

How to Cite

Horneck, G., Debus, A., Mani, P. and Spry, J. A. (2007) Astrobiology Exploratory Missions and Planetary Protection Requirements, in Complete Course in Astrobiology (eds G. Horneck and P. Rettberg), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527618996.ch13

Editor Information

  1. DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Höhe, 51147 Köln, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 FEB 2008
  2. Published Print: 23 FEB 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527406609

Online ISBN: 9783527618996



  • astrobiology;
  • exploratory missions;
  • planetary protection;
  • requirements;
  • implementation;
  • missions to moon;
  • missions to Mars;
  • missions to Venus;
  • missions to moons of giant planets;
  • missions to asteroids;
  • missions to comets


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Rationale and History of Planetary Protection

  • Current Planetary Protection Guidelines

    • Category I Missions

    • Category II Missions

    • Category III Missions

    • Category IV Missions

    • Category V Missions

    • Future Development of Planetary Protection Guidelines

  • Implementation of Planetary Protection Guidelines

    • Bioload Measurements

    • Bioburden Reduction

      • Surface Wiping with Biocleaning Agents

      • Gamma Radiation Sterilization

      • Dry-heat Sterilization

      • Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor/Gas Plasma Sterilization

    • Prevention of Recontamination

  • Astrobiology Exploratory Missions of Concern to Planetary Protection

    • Missions to the Moon

    • Missions to Mars

      • Orbiters or Flyby Missions to Mars

      • Landers or Rovers with in Situ Measurements

      • Landers or Rovers with Martian Samples Returned to the Earth

      • Human Missions to Mars

    • Missions to Venus

    • Missions to the Moons of the Giant Planets

    • Missions to Asteroids or Comets

  • Outlook: Future Tasks of Planetary Protection

  • Further Reading

    • Concerning COSPAR Planetary Protection Guidelines

    • Concerning Handbooks and Standards on Planetary Protection

    • Concerning Bioload of Spacecraft

    • Concerning Lunar Missions

    • Concerning Missions to Terrestrial Planets

    • Concerning Missions to Jupiter's Moon Europa

  • Questions for students