Chapter 19. Genetic Basis for the Evolution of Vertebrate Mineralized Tissue

  1. Prof. Dr. Edmund Bäuerlein
  1. Kazuhiko Kawasaki and
  2. Kenneth M. Weiss

Published Online: 20 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch19

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

How to Cite

Kawasaki, K. and Weiss, K. M. (2007) Genetic Basis for the Evolution of Vertebrate Mineralized Tissue, in Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation (ed E. Bäuerlein), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch19

Editor Information

  1. Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18 A, 82152 Planegg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 25 MAY 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527316410

Online ISBN: 9783527619443

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Keywords:

  • tissue mineralization;
  • extracellular matrix protein;
  • vertebrate evolution;
  • dental tissue;
  • enamel;
  • dentin;
  • bone;
  • enameloid;
  • gene duplication;
  • disordered protein

Summary

Many proteins critical to vertebrate tissue mineralization arose from a common ancestor by gene duplication, and these constitute the Secretory Calcium-binding Phospho-Protein (SCPP) family. A bird eggshell matrix protein, mammalian milk caseins, and salivary proteins are also members of this family. The last common ancestor of these genes was created by a large segmental duplication, or whole genome duplication, early in vertebrate evolution. The SCPP family subsequently arose principally by tandem gene duplication, thereby generating many physiologically similar but functionally specialized proteins. It is notable that the repertoire of SCPP genes is significantly different in tetrapods and teleost fish, reflecting independent parallel gene duplication histories. Thus, while mineralized tissues have remained as an important adaptive trait, the underlying genetic basis has drifted in these two major vertebrate clades. The evolution of the SCPP gene family illustrates the initial co-option of available raw materials used to make the mineralized skeletal system of vertebrates with subsequent tinkering.