Chapter 4. Direct X-Ray Scattering Measurement of Internal Stresses and Strains in Loaded Bones

  1. Prof. Dr. Edmund Bäuerlein
  1. Stuart R. Stock and
  2. Jonathan D. Almer

Published Online: 20 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch48

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

How to Cite

Stock, S. R. and Almer, J. D. (2007) Direct X-Ray Scattering Measurement of Internal Stresses and Strains in Loaded Bones, in Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation (ed E. Bäuerlein), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch48

Editor Information

  1. Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18 A, 82152 Planegg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 25 MAY 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527316410

Online ISBN: 9783527619443

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Keywords:

  • stress;
  • strain;
  • x-ray scattering;
  • synchrotron radiation;
  • bone

Summary

High-energy X-ray scattering offers a unique, non-destructive method for quantifying stress in the interior of bones during in-situ loading. The mineral phase and collagen phase of the composite material bone can be studied independently using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS or diffraction) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. In this chapter, X-ray scattering procedures and stress determinations are briefly reviewed, after which the methods used for the studies are summarized and data from several loading experiments presented. Herein, two main results are featured: (i) an independent determination of Young's modulus in the mineral phase and in the collagen phase of bone via in-situ loading, and comparison with the composite modulus derived from an attached strain gage; and (ii) stress gradients studied in an inhomogeneously loaded rat tibia.