Chapter 11. Formation of Teeth

  1. Prof. Dr. Edmund Bäuerlein
  1. Katharina Reichenmiller and
  2. Christian Klein

Published Online: 20 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch55

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation

How to Cite

Reichenmiller, K. and Klein, C. (2007) Formation of Teeth, in Handbook of Biomineralization: Biological Aspects and Structure Formation (ed E. Bäuerlein), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527619443.ch55

Editor Information

  1. Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18 A, 82152 Planegg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 25 MAY 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527316410

Online ISBN: 9783527619443



  • ameloblast;
  • amelogenesis;
  • cementoblast;
  • cementogenesis;
  • collagen;
  • dentinogenesis;
  • odontoblast;
  • pulp;
  • tooth development;
  • vesicle


During tooth development, several different mineralization processes take place. The tooth is a functional system of dental hard and soft tissues, and the formation of teeth underlies genetic and subsequent cellular control. Mineralization arises by the occurrence of matrix vesicles, followed subsequently by extracellular matrix mineralization processes. Cells are able to secrete a calcifying matrix, and their metabolism is responsible for initiating apatite formation at selected, prefixed extracellular sites. The balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization is regulated by involving the pathways of known and unknown hormones, cytokines and morphogenic factors. Dentin is composed of ca. 70 wt% inorganic compounds, 10 wt% water, and 20 wt% organic matrix, and consists predominantly of collagen fibers. Enamel is composed of 95 wt% inorganic compounds, 4 wt% water, and 1 wt% organic matrix, and is the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body. Enamel contains long, thin crystallites of substituted hydroxyapatite. Cementum, which forms a basic part of the tooth and is also a component of the periodontium, consists of 61 wt% inorganic compounds, 12 wt% water, and 27 wt% organic matrix.