Chapter 11. Migration of Plastic Constituents

  1. Dr. Otto G. Piringer3 and
  2. Dr. Albert L. Baner4
  1. Roland Franz1 and
  2. Angela Störmer2

Published Online: 12 FEB 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527621422.ch11

Plastic Packaging: Interactions with Food and Pharmaceuticals, Second Edition

Plastic Packaging: Interactions with Food and Pharmaceuticals, Second Edition

How to Cite

Franz, R. and Störmer, A. (2008) Migration of Plastic Constituents, in Plastic Packaging: Interactions with Food and Pharmaceuticals, Second Edition (eds O. G. Piringer and A. L. Baner), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527621422.ch11

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Fabes Forschungs GmbH, Schragenhofstraße 35, 80992 München, Germany

  2. 4

    Nestle Purnia Petcare PTC, Checkerboard Square, St. Louis, MO 63164, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung, Abteilung Produktsicherheit und Analytik, Giggenhauserstraße 35, 85354 Freising, Germany

  2. 2

    Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung IVV, Giggenhauserstraße 35, 85354 Freising, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 FEB 2008
  2. Published Print: 20 FEB 2008

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527314553

Online ISBN: 9783527621422



  • plastic packaging;
  • migration;
  • plastic constituents;
  • extraction;
  • adsorption;
  • indirect migration assessment;
  • direct migration measurement;
  • analysis of migration solutions;
  • development of methods;
  • development of validation;
  • development of verification;
  • sources of errors;
  • migration into food simulants;
  • migration into foods;
  • non intentionally added substances (NIAS);
  • not regulated migrants


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Definitions and Theory

    • Migration, Extraction, and Adsorption

    • Functional Barrier

    • Legal Migration Limits and Exposure

    • Parameters Determining Migration

  • Indirect Migration Assessment

    • Worst-Case (Total Mass Transfer) Assumption

    • General Considerations: Taking Solubility and/or Low Diffusivity of Certain Plastics into Account

    • Migration Assessment of Mono- and Multilayers by Application of Complex Mathematical Models

    • Multilayers

  • Migration Experiment

    • Direct Migration Measurement in Conventional and Alternative Simulants

    • Accelerated Migration Tests: Alternative Migration Tests

    • Choice of Appropriate Test Conditions

      • Food Simulants

      • Time Temperature Conditions

      • Surface-to-Volume Ratio

      • Migration Contact

  • Analysis of Migration Solutions

    • Overall Migration

      • Aqueous and Alternative Volatile Simulants

      • Olive Oil

      • Modified Polyphenylene Oxide (Tenax®)

    • Specific Migration

      • Vinyl Chloride EU Directives

      • EN 13130 Series

      • Further Standard Methods

      • Methods of Analysis in Petitions to the European Commission

      • Methods in Foods (Foodmigrosure Project)

  • Development of Methods, Validation, and Verification

    • Establishing (Juristically) Valid Performance of Methods

    • A Practical Guide for Developing and Prevalidation of Analytical Methods

    • Validation Requirements for EU Food Contact Petitions and US FDA Food Contact Notifications

    • Determination of the Detection Limit

    • Analytical Uncertainty

    • Use of the Precision Data from Fully Validated Methods

  • Sources of Errors

    • Highly Volatile Migrants

    • Reaction with Food/Simulant Constituents

    • Migrants in Reactive Processes (e.g., Primary Aromatic Amines from Adhesives)

  • Migration into Food Simulants in Comparison to Foods

  • Consideration of Non Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) and Other not Regulated Migrants

  • References