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17 NOx Formation, Control and Reduction Techniques

Part 2. Combustion Diagnostics and Pollutants

  1. Alexander A. Konnov1,
  2. M. Tayyeb Javed2,
  3. Håkan Kassman3,
  4. Naseem Irfan2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628148.hoc037

Handbook of Combustion

Handbook of Combustion

How to Cite

Konnov, A. A., Javed, M. T., Kassman, H. and Irfan, N. 2010. NOx Formation, Control and Reduction Techniques. Handbook of Combustion. 2:17:439–464.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Combustion Technology, Eindhoven, MB, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan

  3. 3

    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Nyköping, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010


The formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion systems is an important environmental concern. The control of NOx emissions and modern reduction techniques is based on worldwide investigations performed in this field. In this chapter, developments in the understanding of nitrogen chemistry in flames during the pas twenty years following the seminal studies of Miller and Bowman [1] are summarized. The different routes of NOx formation, including the newly proposed NNH route and prompt-NO via NCN and other precursors, are discussed. The results of recent laboratory studies on NOx control through reburning are also detailed. Other approaches for NOx control, including low-NOx burners, flue gas recirculation, and over-fire air, are also outlined. Of special and practical interest are the selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) techniques; these include ammonia-based, urea-based, ammonium carbonate-based SNCRs, and additive-enhanced SNCR. An example of nitrogen-containing additives for the simultaneous reduction of NOx and minimization of corrosion is presented. Finally, potential future developments and areas of use of these reduction techniques are discussed.


  • Nitrogen oxides;
  • NOx control;
  • selective noncatalytic reduction