Standard Article

16 Co-Firing Biomass with Coal in Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems

Part 4. Solid Fuels

  1. Nevin Selçuk,
  2. Zuhal Gogebakan

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628148.hoc070

Handbook of Combustion

Handbook of Combustion

How to Cite

Selçuk, N. and Gogebakan, Z. 2010. Co-Firing Biomass with Coal in Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. Handbook of Combustion. 4:16:557–584.

Author Information

  1. Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ankara, Turkey

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010


This chapter overviews direct co-firing applications of agricultural and forestry residues with coal in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems, which is the most promising technology due to its fuel flexibility and high efficiency. Similarities and differences in characteristics of biomass and coal are summarized. Issues on operational problems and their possible solutions in FBC systems firing biomass only are identified. Among the available solutions to these problems, co-firing biomass with coal is the most effective and simple option. Experiences obtained from several biomass/coal blends in FBC systems, ranging from laboratory rigs to large-scale utility boilers, are presented to emphasize the impact of co-firing on combustion efficiency, emissions and ash-related operational problems.


  • ash;
  • biomass;
  • coal;
  • co-firing;
  • fluidized bed combustion