Standard Article

12 Bone Nanostructure and its Relevance for Mechanical Performance, Disease and Treatment

Part 5. Nanomedicine

  1. Peter Fratzl1,
  2. Himadri S. Gupta1,
  3. Paul Roschger2,
  4. Klaus Klaushofer2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628155.nanotech060



How to Cite

Fratzl, P., Gupta, H. S., Roschger, P. and Klaushofer, K. 2010. Bone Nanostructure and its Relevance for Mechanical Performance, Disease and Treatment. Nanotechnology. 5:12:345–360.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Biomaterials Research Campus Golm, Potsdam, Germany

  2. 2

    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 4th Medical Department Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010


The remarkable mechanical properties of bone are due to its hierarchical structure which is optimized at all levels of hierarchy. At the lowest level, bone is a nanocomposite of collagen and mineral particles. The quality of this material is crucial for the mechanical performance of bone as a whole. In this chapter we review the structure and composition of bone material at the nanoscale, and report several examples on how bone material may be affected by disease or treatment strategies.


  • bone;
  • hydroxyapatite;
  • collagen;
  • osteoporosis;
  • osteogenesis imperfecta;
  • fluorosis;
  • bone mineral density distribution;
  • small-angle X-ray scattering