Chapter 4.1. Defined Colloidal 3D Architectures

  1. Dr. Renate Förch2,
  2. Prof. Dr. Holger Schönherr3 and
  3. Dr. A. Tobias A. Jenkins4
  1. Nina V. Dziomkina,
  2. Mark A. Hempenius and
  3. G. Julius Vancso

Published Online: 9 SEP 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628599.ch15

Surface Design: Applications in Bioscience and Nanotechnology

Surface Design: Applications in Bioscience and Nanotechnology

How to Cite

Dziomkina, N. V., Hempenius, M. A. and Vancso, G. J. (2009) Defined Colloidal 3D Architectures, in Surface Design: Applications in Bioscience and Nanotechnology (eds R. Förch, H. Schönherr and A. T. A. Jenkins), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527628599.ch15

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  2. 3

    University of Siegen, Department of Physical Chemistry, Adolf-Reichwein-Straße 2, 57076 Siegen, Germany

  3. 4

    University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom

Author Information

  1. University of Twente, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Department of Materials Science and Technology of Polymers, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 9 SEP 2009
  2. Published Print: 12 JUN 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527407897

Online ISBN: 9783527628599



  • defined colloidal 3D architectures;
  • polymer colloidal particles;
  • electrophoretic deposition;
  • colloidal monolayers;
  • colloidal crystals;
  • FCC crystal structure;
  • BCC crystal structure;
  • layer-by-layer colloidal deposition


The method of ‘electrophoretic deposition of charged polymer colloids on patterned substrates’ allows an independent control of colloidal crystal structure, orientation and crystal thickness. Patterned surfaces predetermine the location of colloidal particles on the surface and an electric field acts as a driving force in the colloidal crystallization process. The technique was successfully applied to grow single and binary colloidal monolayers, colloidal crystals with FCC crystal structures and (111), (100) and (110) plane orientations, BCC colloidal crystals grown from a (100) crystal plane, nonclose-packed colloidal multilayers with a HCP crystal sequence and binary colloidal crystals with NaCl and AlB2 analog structures. Deposition parameters such as electric-field strength, colloid concentration, surface charge density, withdrawal speed of electrodes, etc. were shown to play an important role in colloidal crystal growth. It was found that colloidal particles with low surface charge densities allowed a better control over colloidal crystallization. An optimal deposition voltage of 3.5 V was found for colloidal crystal growth. Layer-by-layer electrophoretic deposition of colloidal particles with mono- and bimodal distributions on electrode surfaces with periodic patterns was successfully applied. Colloidal binary monolayers with LS, LS2, LS3, LS4 and LS5 stoichiometries were formed by this method on electrode surfaces with square and hexagonal patterns. A decrease in the colloid diameter (D) to pattern periodicity (L) ratio D/L from 1 to 0.75 led to the formation of nonclose-packed binary colloidal monolayers. Layer-by-layer deposition of large and small colloidal particles with radii ratios of 0.41 and 0.49 on square and hexagonal patterns, respectively, led to the formation of binary colloidal crystals with atomic analogs as NaCl and AlB2, respectively. Planar defects could be introduced in colloidal crystals in the form of deposited mono- (multi-) layers of colloidal particles with a colloid diameter different from the colloidal particles forming the main crystal. Growth of nonclose-packed colloidal crystals formed by colloidal particles of the same size and charge was successfully performed. Formation of nonclose-packed colloidal crystals with an A-B-A sequence (analogous to the HCP crystal structure) on hexagonally patterned surfaces with a D/L ratio of 0.75 was demonstrated. Layer-by-layer electrophoretic deposition of colloidal particles on patterned electrode surfaces is a powerful method for the fabrication of nonclose-packed and binary colloidal crystals with various crystal structures.