9 Automotive Emission Control: Past, Present and Future
Part 2. Heterogeneous Catalysis
Published Online: 15 JUL 2010
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.
Handbook of Green Chemistry
How to Cite
Farrauto, R. J. and Hoke, J. 2010. Automotive Emission Control: Past, Present and Future. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 2:197–221.
- Published Online: 15 JUL 2010
The first automobile catalysts, for gasoline fueled internal combustion engines (IC) were introduced in 1975. They were designed to facilitate the reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned gasoline derived hydrocarbons (HC). The catalyst had to continue to function with an approximate reduction of 90% (relative to an uncontrolled 1970 vehicle) for 50,000 miles. The automobile industry was skeptical since the success of the catalyst was dependent on the driving and maintenance cycles of the average consumer. Since that time we have seen one of the most successful applications of catalysis for cleaning emissions from IC engines including gasoline, diesel, two and 4 cycle engines, power plants, chemical plants, restaurants, and wide body aircraft to name a few. Today we see the three way catalyst (TWC) as the heart of a closed loop engine control strategy successfully reducing emissions of CO, HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to near zero for 150,000 miles. This has clearly been an achievement of epic proportions with a positive impact on the environment and the health of the world.
Now catalytic scientists and engineers are faced with new challenges for controlling diesel engine emissions for trucks, buses and passenger cars. As we approach 2010 Federal Standard emissions of CO, HC, NOx and particulates must approach zero levels. The homogeneous charge combustion engine (HCCI) is in development and holds promise for cleaner diesel emissions.
This review provides a brief history of some of the accomplishments in controlling emissions from the gasoline and diesel engines. It also describes alternative technologies under investigation including advanced NOx reduction, new engine concepts and the fuel cell as the end game in the hydrogen economy. A common thread for all these technologies is heterogeneous catalysis.
- automotive emissions;
- three-way catalysts;
- diesel emissions;
- fuel cells;
- diesel particulate filter;
- lean NOx trap;
- selective catalytic reduction;
- homogeneous charge compression ignition