Standard Article

High-pressure Methods and Equipment

Part 4. Supercritical Solvents

  1. Nils Theyssen1,
  2. Katherine Scovell2,
  3. Martyn Poliakoff2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc035

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Theyssen, N., Scovell, K. and Poliakoff, M. 2010. High-pressure Methods and Equipment. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 4:2:31–75.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim, Germany

  2. 2

    University of Nottingham, Department of Chemistry, Nottingham, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

Abstract

The sections in this article are

  • Introduction
  • Infrastructure for High-pressure Experiments
    • Location
    • Gas Supply, Compression, and Purification
  • High-pressure Reactors
    • Materials of Construction for High-pressure Reactors
      • Metal Components
      • Sealing Materials
    • Reactor Design
      • General Considerations
      • Pressure Vessels for Batch Processing
      • Continuous Flow Reactors
  • Auxiliary Equipment and Handling
    • Tubes and Fittings
    • Valves
    • Pressure Transmitter and Manometer
    • Reactor Heating and Temperature Control
    • Stirrer Types
    • Optical Windows
    • Pressure Safety Valves and Bursting Discs
    • Online Sampling
    • Inline Spectroscopic Measurements
    • Reactor Cleaning
      • Cleaning with Organic Solvents
      • Cleaning with Heated Solvents
      • Cleaning with Acids
      • Cleaning with a Combination of Organic Solvent and scCO2
  • Dosage Under a High-pressure Regime
    • Dosage of Gases
      • Safety Warnings
      • Dosing in Batch Processes
      • Dosage for Continuous Flow Processes
    • Dosage of Liquids
    • Dosage of Solids
  • Further Regulations and Control in Flow Systems
    • Supply Pressure
    • Reactor Pressure
    • Flow and Total Volume Measurement of Depressurized Gas Streams
  • Evaporation and Condensation
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
  • Complete Reactor Systems for Synthesis with SCFs
    • Standard Batch Reactor System
      • Essential equipment
      • Brief Description of Work Steps
    • Fully Automated System for Continuous Flow Operation
  • Conclusion

Keywords:

  • supercritical fluid;
  • high pressure;
  • reactor;
  • gas dosage;
  • liquid dosage