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Expanded Liquid Phases in Catalysis: Gas-expanded Liquids and Liquid–Supercritical Fluid Biphasic Systems

Part 4. Supercritical Solvents

  1. Ulrich Hintermair1,
  2. Walter Leitner1,
  3. Philip Jessop2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc037

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Hintermair, U., Leitner, W. and Jessop, P. 2010. Expanded Liquid Phases in Catalysis: Gas-expanded Liquids and Liquid–Supercritical Fluid Biphasic Systems. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 4:4:101–187.

Author Information

  1. 1

    RWTH Aachen, Institut für Technische Chemie, Aachen, Germany

  2. 2

    Queen's University, Department of Chemistry, Kingston, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010


The sections in this article are

  • A Practical Classification of Biphasic Systems Consisting of Liquids and Compressed Gases for Multiphase Catalysis
  • Physical Properties of Expanded Liquid Phases
    • Volumetric Expansion
    • Density
    • Viscosity
    • Melting Point
    • Interfacial Tension
    • Diffusivity
    • Polarity
    • Gas Solubility
  • Chemisorption of Gases in Liquids and their Use for Synthesis and Catalysis
    • In Situ Generation of Acids and Temporary Protection Strategies
    • Switchable Solvents and Catalyst Systems
  • Using Gas-expanded Liquids for Catalysis
    • Motivation and Potential Benefits
    • Sequential Reaction–Separation Processes
      • Tunable Precipitation and Crystallization
      • Tunable Phase Separations
      • Tunable Miscibility
    • Hydrogenation Reactions
    • Carbonylation Reactions
    • Oxidation Reactions
    • Miscellaneous
  • Why Perform Liquid–SCF Biphasic Reactions?
    • By Necessity (Unintentional Immiscibility)
    • To Facilitate Post-Reaction Separation
    • To Facilitate Product/Catalyst Separation in Continuous Flow Systems
    • To Stabilize a Catalyst
    • To Remove a Kinetic Product
    • To Control the Concentration of Reagent or Product in the Reacting Phase
    • To Permit Emulsion Polymerization
    • To Create Templated Materials
  • Biphasic Liquid–SCF Systems
    • Solvent Selection
    • Aqueous–SCF Biphasic Systems
    • Ionic Liquid–SCF Biphasic Systems
    • Polymer–SCF Biphasic Systems
    • Liquid Product–SCF Biphasic Systems
  • Biphasic Reactions in Emulsions
    • Water-in-SCF Inverse Emulsions
    • SCF-in-Water Emulsions
    • Ionic Liquid-in-SCF Emulsions
    • Applications of Emulsions


  • supercritical fluid;
  • expanded liquid phases;
  • gas-expanded liquids;
  • biphasic systems;
  • catalysis;
  • carbon dioxide;
  • ionic liquid