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Green Oxidation in Water

Part 5. Reactions in Water

  1. Roger A. Sheldon

Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc050

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Sheldon, R. A. 2010. Green Oxidation in Water. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 5:4:75–103.

Author Information

  1. Delft University of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Delft, BL, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2010

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

Green catalytic oxidations in water are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the use of the green, readily available oxidants, molecular oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide, although other oxidants receive a cursory mention. Two different strategies for the oxidation of sparingly soluble substrates in an aqueous biphasic medium are delineated. The first involves the use of a phase-transfer agent to transfer the catalyst and/or the oxidant to the organic phase where the oxidation takes place. Many reactions with water-soluble oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite, are performed in this way. The second strategy employs a water-soluble catalyst and the oxidation takes place in the water phase. The product is separated as the organic phase and the catalyst, contained in the water phase, is readily recovered and recycled. Many oxidations with molecular oxygen are performed in this mode. These principles are illustrated using epoxidation and dihydroxylation of olefins with hydrogen peroxide, oxidations of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and sulfoxidations as examples. With regard to catalysts, there is a definite trend towards the use of the inexpensive, environmentally attractive first-row transition elements, iron, copper, and manganese and organocatalysts, such as the stable N-oxy radicals. In addition, the use of noble metal nanoclusters, on a support or immobilized in polymer matrices, as catalysts for green oxidations in water is receiving increasing attention. The current trend towards the exploitation of renewable resources, such as carbohydrate feedstocks, will also generate a need for green oxidations in water.

Keywords:

  • oxidation;
  • catalytic oxidation;
  • organocatalysis;
  • aqueous biphasic catalysis;
  • metal nanoclusters;
  • water;
  • green chemistry

Featured Compounds

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  1. 1 - 11
Compound 1
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 2
Molecular Weight:832.778
Molecular Formula:C32H20N8O12S4
InChIKey:HBKQLLGXXQEOQD-UHFFFAOYSA-J
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Compound 3
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 4
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 4a
Molecular Weight:568.572
Molecular Formula:C26H24N2Na2O6S2
InChIKey:MBZXAVMLVZKQQP-UHFFFAOYSA-L
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Compound 4b
Molecular Weight:596.625
Molecular Formula:C28H28N2Na2O6S2
InChIKey:UOIRGDPRORCMCT-UHFFFAOYSA-L
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Compound 5
Molecular Weight:324.4631
Molecular Formula:C20H28N4
InChIKey:HDQFPJIZHWFWTR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 6
Molecular Weight:270.3727
Molecular Formula:C16H22N4
InChIKey:NJAHJMGPPKJUTO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 7
Molecular Weight:438.5673
Molecular Formula:C27H30N6
InChIKey:ZODATTHCRVWTBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 8
Molecular Weight:499.44
Molecular Formula:C22H14N4O4Ru
InChIKey:LMHDOSVYTRDOLX-UHFFFAOYSA-L
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Compound 9
Molecular Weight:456.599
Molecular Formula:C28H28N2O2S
InChIKey:QYQUTSZXRMZKFH-NSOVKSMOSA-N
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  1. 1 - 11