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Evaluating the Greenness of Synthesis

Part 7. Green Synthesis

  1. David J.C. Constable1,
  2. Concepción “Conchita” Jiménez-González2

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc073

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Constable, D. J. and Jiménez-González, C. “. 2012. Evaluating the Greenness of Synthesis. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 7:2:35–67.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lockheed Martin, Energy, Environment, Safety and Health, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

  2. 2

    GlaxoSmithKline, Operational Sustainability, Sustainability and Environment, NC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012


This chapter covers the typical metrics that can be used to evaluate the greenness of chemical synthesis. The discussion also illustrates the need to develop green metrics for chemical processes in a holistic fashion and from a systems point of view across a range of disciplines, where trade-offs are often encountered amongst the metrics.


  • chemical synthesis;
  • greenness;
  • green engineering metrics;
  • green chemistry