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Understanding Mechanisms of Metabolic Transformations as a Tool for Designing Safer Chemicals

Part 9. Designing Safer Chemicals

  1. Thomas G. Osimitz1,
  2. John L. Nelson2

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc097

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Osimitz, T. G. and Nelson, J. L. 2012. Understanding Mechanisms of Metabolic Transformations as a Tool for Designing Safer Chemicals. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 9:3:47–75.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Science Strategies LLC, Citizens Commonwealth Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

  2. 2

    Eastern Michigan University, Chemistry Department, Ypsilanti, MI, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012

Abstract

The sections in this article are

  • Introduction
  • The Role of Metabolism in Producing Toxic Metabolites
    • Phase I Metabolism
    • Phase II Metabolism
  • Mechanisms by Which Chemicals Produce Toxicity
    • Covalent Binding to Macromolecules
    • Enzyme Inhibition
    • Ischemia/Hypoxia
    • Oxidative Stress
    • Receptor–Ligand Interactions
  • Conclusion

Keywords:

  • metabolic transformations;
  • safer chemicals;
  • chemical design;
  • toxic metabolites;
  • toxicity;
  • green chemistry