Standard Article

Informing Substitution to Safer Alternatives

Part 9. Designing Safer Chemicals

  1. Emma Lavoie1,
  2. David DiFiore1,
  3. Meghan Marshall1,
  4. Chuantung Lin1,
  5. Kelly Grant1,
  6. Katherine Hart1,
  7. Fred Arnold2,
  8. Laura Morlacci3,
  9. Kathleen Vokes4,
  10. Carol Hetfield2,
  11. Elizabeth Sommer1,
  12. Melanie Vrabel1,
  13. Mary Cushmac1,
  14. Charles Auer5,
  15. Clive Davies1

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc099

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Lavoie, E., DiFiore, D., Marshall, M., Lin, C., Grant, K., Hart, K., Arnold, F., Morlacci, L., Vokes, K., Hetfield, C., Sommer, E., Vrabel, M., Cushmac, M., Auer, C. and Davies, C. 2012. Informing Substitution to Safer Alternatives. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 9:5:107–135.

Author Information

  1. 1

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Design for the Environment Program, Washington, DC, USA

  2. 2

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DC, USA

  3. 3

    SRC, Inc., Arlington, VA, USA

  4. 4

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Protection Partnership Division, ENERGY STAR Labeling Branch, Washington, DC, USA

  5. 5

    Charles Auer & Associates, LLC, MD, Poolesville

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012


The sections in this article are

  • Design for Environment Approaches to Risk Reduction: Identifying and Encouraging the Use of Safer Chemistry
  • Assessment of Safer Chemical Alternatives: Enabling Scientific, Technological, and Commercial Development
  • Informed Substitution
    • Functional Use as an Analytical Construct
    • Defining Safer Chemistry – the DfE Criteria for Safer Chemical Ingredients
    • Continuous Improvement to Advance Green Chemistry
    • Best Practices to Manage Risks in the Absence of Safer Substitutes
    • Life-Cycle Thinking: A Holistic Approach
  • Examples that Illustrate Informed Substitution
    • Informing Real-Time Substitution Decisions: Chemical Alternative Assessment for Pentabromodiphenyl Ether
      • The Partnership
      • The Alternatives Assessment
    • Encouraging Informed Substitution: Safer Product Labeling Program
      • Substituting to Safer Surfactants
      • The Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative
      • CleanGredients®
    • Developing and Applying Best Practices in the Absence of Safer Substitutes: Isocyanates
      • Best Practices as an Important Risk Management Approach
      • New Developments in Manufacturing Polyurethanes Without Using Isocyanates
      • Safer Manufacture of Diisocyanates Without Using Phosgene
    • Life-Cycle Assessment to Inform Alternatives to Leaded Solder for Electronics
  • Conclusion
  • Disclaimer


  • informing substitution;
  • risk reduction;
  • life-cycle;
  • functional use;
  • safer chemicals;
  • green chemistry