Standard Article

Drugs

Part 9. Designing Safer Chemicals

  1. Klaus Kümmerer

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc103

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Kümmerer, K. 2012. Drugs. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 9:9:251–279.

Author Information

  1. Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Lüneburg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012

Abstract

The sections in this article are

  • Introduction
  • Pharmaceuticals – What They Are
  • Pharmaceuticals in the Environment – Sources, Fate, and Effects
    • Sources
    • Fate
    • Effects
  • Risk Management
    • (Advanced) Effluent Treatment and Its Limitations
    • Role of Patients, Pharmacists, and Doctors
    • Role of the Drugs
  • Designing Environmentally Safe Drugs
    • What are Safe Drugs?
    • Improvements Related to Use and After-Use Life
      • Lower Activity Thresholds
      • Prodrugs
      • Drug Targeting, Drug Delivery, Degree of Metabolism
      • Biopharmaceuticals
    • Benign by Design
      • Why?
      • How?
      • Degradable Drugs – a Contradiction per se?
      • Structure Matters
      • Stability Versus Reactivity – How Stable Is Reactive Enough
      • Examples Demonstrating Feasibility
  • Conclusion

Keywords:

  • drugs;
  • pharmaceuticals;
  • environment;
  • risk management;
  • safer chemicals;
  • green chemistry