Standard Article

Interaction of Chemicals with the Endocrine System

Part 9. Designing Safer Chemicals

  1. Thomas G. Osimitz

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527628698.hgc112

Handbook of Green Chemistry

Handbook of Green Chemistry

How to Cite

Osimitz, T. G. 2012. Interaction of Chemicals with the Endocrine System. Handbook of Green Chemistry. 9:18:501–524.

Author Information

  1. Science Strategies, LLC, Citizens Commonwealth Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012


The sections in this article are

  • Interaction with the Endocrine System
    • Introduction
    • Importance of SAR and QSAR in Understanding the Chemical Nature of Endocrine Active Chemicals
  • Estrogens
    • General
    • Features of the Natural Ligand E2 That Contribute to ER Binding
    • Features of Xenobiotics That Contribute to ER Binding
    • Criteria for Binding With the Estradiol Template
    • Prediction of Potential ER Binding
      • Initial Filters
      • Structural Alerts
      • Decision Tree-Based Model
    • Predictive Approach for Priority Setting
      • Phase I: Rejection Filters
    • Alkylphenols
    • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
    • Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens
    • Hydroxylated Triphenylacrylonitrile Derivatives
  • Androgens
    • General
    • General Structure–Activity Relationships
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis
    • General
    • General Structure–Activity Relationships
    • Brominated Flame Retardants
    • Monohydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Endocrine Disruptor Data Development Efforts
  • Research Needs and Future


  • endocrine system;
  • receptor binding;
  • estrogens;
  • androgens;
  • hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis;
  • safer chemicals;
  • green chemistry