Chapter 2. Green Chemistry Metrics

  1. Dr. Peter J. Dunn4,5,
  2. Dr. Andrew S. Wells6 and
  3. Dr. Michael T. Williams7
  1. Richard K. Henderson1,
  2. David J. C. Constable2 and
  3. Concepción Jiménez-González3

Published Online: 19 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9783527629688.ch2

Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

How to Cite

Henderson, R. K., Constable, D. J. C. and Jiménez-González, C. (2010) Green Chemistry Metrics, in Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry (eds P. J. Dunn, A. S. Wells and M. T. Williams), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527629688.ch2

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Pfizer Green Chemistry Lead, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9NJ, United Kingdom

  2. 5

    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9NJ, UK

  3. 6

    Astra Zeneca, Process Research & Development, Bakewell Road, Loughborough, LE11 5RH, United Kingdom

  4. 7

    CMC Consultant, 133, London Road, Deal, Kent, CT14 9TY, United Kingdom

Author Information

  1. 1

    GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Park Road, Ware, Herts. SG12 0DP, UK

  2. 2

    V.P. Energy, Environment, Safety and Health Lockeed Martin, 6801 Rockledge Drive, MP: CCT-246, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA

  3. 3

    GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Five Moore Drive Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 MAR 2010
  2. Published Print: 10 MAR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527324187

Online ISBN: 9783527629688



  • green chemistry metrics;
  • twelve principles;
  • life cycle analysis;
  • solvents;
  • renewables;
  • scalability;
  • controllability;
  • robustness;
  • hazard ranking;
  • inherent safety


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Measuring Resource Usage

  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

  • Measuring Chemistry and Process Efficiency

  • Measuring Process Parameters and Emissions

  • Real Time Analysis

  • Operational Efficiency

  • Measuring Energy

  • Measuring the Toxicity of All the Substrates

  • Measuring Degradation Potential

  • Measuring the Inherent Safety or Lack of Inherent Safety

  • Conclusions

  • References