12. Omics Techniques in Crop Research: An Overview

  1. Dr. Narendra Tuteja6,7,
  2. Dr. Sarvajeet Singh Gill6,8,
  3. Prof. Antonio F. Tiburcio9 and
  4. Dr. Renu Tuteja6
  1. Bashasab Fakrudin1,
  2. Roberto Tuberosa2 and
  3. Rajeev K. Varshney3,4,5

Published Online: 30 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527632930.ch12

Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2

Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2

How to Cite

Fakrudin, B., Tuberosa, R. and Varshney, R. K. (2012) Omics Techniques in Crop Research: An Overview, in Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2 (eds N. Tuteja, S. S. Gill, A. F. Tiburcio and R. Tuteja), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527632930.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 6

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Plant Molecular Biology Group, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India

  2. 7

    MD University, Centre for Biotechnology, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India

  3. 8

    Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Botany, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India

  4. 9

    Universitat de Barcelona, Unitat de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultat de Farmàcia, Av. Joan XXIII, S/N, 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agri-Biotechnology, Dharwad, Krishinagar, Dharwad 580 005, Karnataka, India

  2. 2

    University of Bologna, Department of Agro-environmental Sciences and Technology, Via Fanin, 44, 40127-Bologna, Italy

  3. 3

    International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Center of Excellence in Genomics (CEG) Patancheru, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 502 324, India

  4. 4

    Comparative and Applied Genomics (CAG), Generation Challenge Programme (GCP), CIMMYT Int. APDO Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico

  5. 5

    The University of Western Australia, School of Plant Biology (M084), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 MAR 2012
  2. Published Print: 14 MAR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527328406

Online ISBN: 9783527632930

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Keywords:

  • ESTs;
  • high-throughput genotyping;
  • MPSS;
  • next-generation sequencing;
  • omics;
  • SAGE;
  • phenomics;
  • crop improvement

Summary

Omics is a collective, broad discipline largely referring to analysis of the interactions of biological information obtained from the profiling of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and several other relevant -omes. While phase one of omics technologies aims at nontargeted identification of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites (essentially gene products) in a given biological sample, phase two deals with a very challenging analysis of data eventually leading to the dissection of the qualitative and quantitative dynamics of biological systems. Essentially, the omics science is enabled by a host of diverse, high-throughput technologies and platforms [1]. The full range of omics technologies can now be applied to understand the same fundamental biological processes [2]. Mapping and defining the relationships among genes, proteins, and metabolites require relative comparison of the networks that eventually help in understanding the regulatory mechanisms. A diverse but converging approaches such as forward and reverse genetics and transgenics (overexpression and knockdowns) can define the function of a gene to the specific phenotype, the omic technologies aim at revealing the function of each and every gene in the genome, which collectively contribute toward elucidating the networks and better understanding the whole plant phenotype [3–5].Access to omics tools at an affordable price is becoming a reality, which together with a large inventory of candidate genes, proteins, and metabolites and their databases deduced from profiling efforts in model systems and crop plants have speeded up the analysis of biological functions operating in various plant stress responses [2, 6]. These new strategies have begun to piece together the physiological and phenotypic observations with information on transcription and transcript regulation, the behavior of proteins, protein complexes and pathways, and the metabolites and metabolite fluxes, finally shedding light on evolutionary adaptive diversifications of organisms.