4. Salinity Stress: A Major Constraint in Crop Production

  1. Dr. Narendra Tuteja1,2,
  2. Dr. Sarvajeet Singh Gill1,3,
  3. Prof. Antonio F. Tiburcio4 and
  4. Dr. Renu Tuteja1
  1. Narendra Tuteja1,2,
  2. Lamabam Peter Singh3,
  3. Sarvajeet Singh Gill3,
  4. Ritu Gill2 and
  5. Renu Tuteja1

Published Online: 30 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9783527632930.ch4

Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2

Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2

How to Cite

Tuteja, N., Peter Singh, L., Gill, S. S., Gill, R. and Tuteja, R. (2012) Salinity Stress: A Major Constraint in Crop Production, in Improving Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stress, Volume 1 & Volume 2 (eds N. Tuteja, S. S. Gill, A. F. Tiburcio and R. Tuteja), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527632930.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 1

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Plant Molecular Biology Group, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India

  2. 2

    MD University, Centre for Biotechnology, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India

  3. 3

    Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Botany, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India

  4. 4

    Universitat de Barcelona, Unitat de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultat de Farmàcia, Av. Joan XXIII, S/N, 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Author Information

  1. 1

    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Plant Molecular Biology Group, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India

  2. 2

    MD University, Centre for Biotechnology, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India

  3. 3

    Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Botany, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 MAR 2012
  2. Published Print: 14 MAR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527328406

Online ISBN: 9783527632930

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Keywords:

  • ABA signaling;
  • antioxidant enzymes;
  • calcium signaling;
  • compatible solutes;
  • oxidative stress;
  • salinity stress

Summary

Salinity is a major constraint in crop production worldwide. Salinity affects nearly 20% of the world's cultivated area and about half the world's total irrigated lands. Saline soil is characterized by the toxic levels of chlorides and sulfates of sodium. The problem of soil salinity is increasing due to irrigation, improper drainage, entry of seawater in coastal areas, and salt accumulation in arid and semiarid regions. Sodium is an essential micronutrient for some of the plants, but most crop plants are natrophobic. Salinity is detrimental to plant growth as it causes nutritional constraints by decreasing uptake of phosphorus, potassium, nitrate, and calcium and leads to ion cytotoxicity and osmotic stress. Under salinity, ions such as Na+ and Cl penetrate the hydration shells of proteins and interfere with the function of these proteins. Ionic toxicity, osmotic stress, and nutritional defects under salinity lead to metabolic imbalances and oxidative stress. Plant salt tolerance mechanisms can be grouped into cellular homeostasis (including ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment), stress damage control (repair and detoxification), and growth regulation. Osmotic stress induces several proteins in vegetative tissues of higher plants, which are related to late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and thought to play an important role in osmotic adjustment. Numerous genes that are involved in stress tolerance mechanisms (e.g., genes encoding osmolytes, antioxidant enzymes, components of calcium signaling, and other regulatory signaling factors) are also upregulated in response to salt stress. By and large, tolerance of plant to salinity stress is a synchronized action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also crosstalk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways.