9. Composites of Nanocellulose and Lignin-like Polymers

  1. Juan P. Hinestroza and
  2. Anil N. Netravali
  1. Justin R. Barone1,2

Published Online: 21 MAR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9783527649440.ch9

Cellulose Based Composites: Cellulose Based Composites

Cellulose Based Composites: Cellulose Based Composites

How to Cite

Barone, J. R. (2014) Composites of Nanocellulose and Lignin-like Polymers, in Cellulose Based Composites: Cellulose Based Composites (eds J. P. Hinestroza and A. N. Netravali), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527649440.ch9

Editor Information

  1. Cornell University, Department of Fiber Science & Apparel Design, 242 MVR Hall, 37 Forest Home Drive, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 155 Ag Quad Lane, VA 24061, USA

  2. 2

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 303 Seitz Hall (0303), Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 MAR 2014
  2. Published Print: 17 MAR 2014

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527327195

Online ISBN: 9783527649440



  • nanocomposite;
  • enzymatic polymerization;
  • nanocellulose;
  • morphology


Native lignocellulosic materials are composites of fibrous cellulose in a lignin polymer matrix with various hemicelluloses acting as compatibilizers. Nanometer-scale crystals of cellulose with high aspect ratio (“nanocellulose”) can be isolated via acid hydrolysis. In an attempt to mimic native lignocellulose, phenol and coniferyl alcohol are enzymatically polymerized into a solution of nanocellulose. To control the cellulose/polyphenol interface, the surface of nanocellulose is oxidized with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPO) to mimic the chemistry of the hemicellulose compatibilizer. The propanyl substituent on the polyphenol matrix produces a nanocomposite with more uniform morphological features and a lower glass-transition temperature than unsubstituted polyphenolic matrices. Both nanocomposites have qualities of actual lignocellulose morphology but the polyconiferyl alcohol–nanocellulose morphology and overall structure more closely resembles actual lignocellulose.