9. Yeast Gene Expression
- Prof. Dr. Horst Feldmann1,2
Published Online: 26 SEP 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Yeast: Molecular and Cell Biology, Second Edition
How to Cite
Feldmann, H. (ed) (2012) Yeast Gene Expression, in Yeast: Molecular and Cell Biology, Second Edition, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527659180.ch9
Adolf Butenandt Institute, Molecular Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität M¨nchen, Schillerstr. 44, 80336 M¨nchen, Germany
Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse 22B, 85232 Bergkirchen, Germany
- Published Online: 26 SEP 2012
- Published Print: 22 AUG 2012
Print ISBN: 9783527332526
Online ISBN: 9783527659180
- yeastgene expression;
- transcription factors;
- RNA polymerases;
- DNA repair;
- translation apparatus;
- protein splicing
• To date, in a fruitful competition between yeast and higher eukaryotes (particularly mammals), we have a good knowledge of the factors and mechanisms that operate in transcription and its regulation. With regard to the three RNA polymerases (finally termed polymerase I, II, and III), yeast made a wealth of decisive contributions. A highlight was the determination of the three-dimensional structure of the polymerase II holoenzyme; around the same time descriptions of the three-dimensional structures of GTFs as well as of polymerase II complexed with accessory regulating factors, such as the SRB/Mediator complex, became available. It is unnecessary to stress that prior to that single components had been characterized in yeast and mammalian systems, whereby biochemical and genetic data obtained in yeast were most helpful. Again, it was astonishing how well the transcription process and its components are conserved between yeast and humans. The same applies to the processes coupled to transcription: DNA repair, splicing of the mRNA precursors, and polyadenylation of the mRNA. To date, interest focuses on processes such as generating stable, functional mRNA, and its maintenance and export from the nucleus. In this context, the structure and function of the yeast exosome are described.
• Since the discovery of the nucleosome as a basic principle of organizing the genetic material in eukaryotes and the significance of euchromatin and heterochromatin, experiments undertaken to decipher the role of changes to chromatin structure in DNA replication and transcription have produced such a wealth of information that it is scarcely possible for a nonspecialist to follow all the details. What we have learned is that many intricate cues cooperate in histone modification and chromatin remodeling. Thus, investigations on the modulation of chromatin structure and global nucleosome occupancy have contributed useful information on how we have to envisage gene transcription in modern terms.
• A shorter section is devoted to the peculiarities of translation in yeast (e.g., the problem of how intrinsic sequence features influence translational activity). Finally, a brief description of yeast inteins is included in this chapter.