30. Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogen – Principles and Hydrocarbon Fuels as an Example

  1. Prof. Detlef Stolten2,3 and
  2. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Viktor Scherer4
  1. Georg Schaub,
  2. Hilko Eilers and
  3. Maria Iglesias González

Published Online: 21 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9783527673872.ch30

Transition to Renewable Energy Systems

Transition to Renewable Energy Systems

How to Cite

Schaub, G., Eilers, H. and González, M. I. (2013) Chemical Storage of Renewable Electricity via Hydrogen – Principles and Hydrocarbon Fuels as an Example, in Transition to Renewable Energy Systems (eds D. Stolten and V. Scherer), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527673872.ch30

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEF-3: Fuel Cells, Leo-Brandt-Straße, IEF-3: Fuel Cells, 52425 Jülich, Germany

  2. 3

    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK-3 Institut für En. & Klimaforschung, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52428 Jülich, Germany

  3. 4

    Ruhr-Universität Bochum LS f. Energieanlagen, IB 3/126 Universitätsstr. 150 LS f. Energieanlagen, IB 3/126 44780 Bochum Germany

Author Information

  1. Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Chemische Energieträger – Brennstofftechnologie, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1 (Geb. 40.02), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 JUN 2013
  2. Published Print: 28 MAY 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527332397

Online ISBN: 9783527673872

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Keywords:

  • renewable electricity;
  • hydrogen storage;
  • hydrocarbon fuels as energy storage

Summary

The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage owing to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers, for example, in the form of H2 that may be further processed to other upgraded fuels such as hydrocarbons. Storage in the form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared with H2 storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage, and utilization already exists. This chapter introduces the general principles of transformation and the potential of H2 integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, and production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H2–CO2. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO2 emissions decreased since fossil resources for H2 production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO2 is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed; however, lower hydrocarbon product yields per H2 are achieved since CO2 has the highest oxygen content.