32. Micropropagation of Aloe vera for Improvement and Enhanced Productivity

  1. Narendra Tuteja4 and
  2. Sarvajeet S. Gill5
  1. Narpat S. Shekhawat1,
  2. Mangal S. Rathore2,
  3. Smita Shekhawat1,
  4. Sumitra K. Choudhary1,
  5. Mahendra Phulwaria1,
  6. Harish3,
  7. Manoj K. Rai1,
  8. J.B. Vibha1,
  9. Nitika S. Rathore1,
  10. A.K. Patel1 and
  11. Vinod Kataria1

Published Online: 8 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9783527675265.ch32

Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

How to Cite

Shekhawat, N. S., Rathore, M. S., Shekhawat, S., Choudhary, S. K., Phulwaria, M., Harish, Rai, M. K., Vibha, J.B., Rathore, N. S., Patel, A.K. and Kataria, V. (2013) Micropropagation of Aloe vera for Improvement and Enhanced Productivity, in Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance (eds N. Tuteja and S. S. Gill), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527675265.ch32

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Center for Genetic, Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067,India

  2. 5

    221, Stress Physiology & Molecular Biology Lab, Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana, India

Author Information

  1. 1

    Jai Narain Vyas University, Department of Botany, Biotechnology Unit, Jodhpur, 342033, Rajasthan, India

  2. 2

    Discipline of Wasteland Research CSIR – CSMCRI, G.B. Marg Bhavnagar, Gujarat, 364002, India

  3. 3

    Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Department of Botany, Udaipur, 313001, Rajasthan, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 NOV 2013
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527334919

Online ISBN: 9783527675265



  • Aloe vera;
  • micropropagation;
  • climate change;
  • cloning;
  • tissue culture;
  • rooting;
  • hardening


Human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, and global warming are adversely affecting ecosystem functions and thus ecosystem services. Ecosystems have capacities to function as sinks for CO2 and regulate water flows in landscapes. There is growing concern over the impact of the imminent climate changes in the Anthropocene era on biodiversity and food/feed security. Biodiversity loss and poverty are two of the world's major challenges in the twenty-first century. By 2025, two-thirds of the world's population could be living under water-critical conditions. Arid regions (drylands) cover about 45–47% of the Earth's land surface, the largest biome on the planet, and are home for 38% of the total global population. Arid lands are prone to the dangers of climate change and are the most likely to be seriously hit. Plants use solar energy to power the conversion of CO2 into biomass. There is need for new paradigms in plant research and technology for the utilization of plants as biomass resources. Aloe, a genus of the family Xanthorrhoeaceae comprising of about 548 species, is a plant group that provides useful products and can also be used for ecosystem restoration. Medicinal use of Aloe leaves dates back thousands of years, and today Aloe plants are world-renowned as a source of natural products derived from the leaf exudates and mesophyll. Aloe exhibit remarkable morphological variability and range in size from dwarf species only a few centimeters tall to tree Aloe reaching heights of up to 20 m. Aloe form a striking and important component of many arid and semi-arid landscapes. Aloe are associated with dry habitats and hot climates. About 10 species of Aloe are used as sources of herbal medicines and less than 10 can be eaten safely. Aloe vera and Aloe ferox are key commercial medicinal species. A. ferox and Aloe secundiflora are wild-harvested in the Africas. More than 40 species of Aloe are in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (2011) Red List of Threatened Species. The trade of all Aloe, except A. vera, is regulated by CITES. In this chapter, we review the biology and biotechnology of A. vera, with a special emphasis on clonal propagation. Major research has been performed all over the world on the conservation and clonal propagation of A. vera and Aloe polyphylla. At Jodhpur (Gateway of the Thar Desert), India, we have developed a method for rapid clonal propagation by shoot proliferation from axillary meristem(s) of selected germplasm (edible) of A. vera. The bud explants produced multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media + 3.0 mg l−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and additives. The shoots were further multiplied by repeated transfer to fresh nutrient medium and subculturing on MS + lower concentration of BAP. The maximum number of shoots was produced on MS medium + 1.0 mg l−1BAP and additives. The rate of shoot multiplication increased and the vigor of the shoots improved if the shoots were cultured in liquid MS medium with 1.0 mg l−1BAP. The cloned shoots rooted in vitro on hormone-free half-strength MS salts + activated charcoal at 30–34 °C. The cloned shoots were excised and isolated individually, the base of each shoot dipped in solution of 500 mg l−1 of either indole-3-butyric acid or β-naphthoxyacetic acid for 5 min, and then rooted ex vitro on soilrite in glass bottles in the greenhouse. The plantlets were acclimatized and hardened in the greenhouse. These were stored under an agro-net-covered nursery. The cloned plants were transferred under different field conditions at various locations in Rajasthan, India, during different seasons. The method described here is highly reproducible and easier for mass cloning of A. vera due to the high rate of shoot multiplication achieved on low-cost culture medium and also the ease with which shoots are rooted ex vitro, facilitating quicker hardening/acclimation and field transfer.