18. Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis
- Sergio Riva4 and
- Wolf-Dieter Fessner5
Published Online: 27 JUN 2014
Copyright © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Cascade Biocatalysis : Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions
How to Cite
Wessjohann, L., Dippe, M., Tengg, M. and Gruber-Khadjawi, M. (2014) Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis, in Cascade Biocatalysis : Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions (eds S. Riva and W.-D. Fessner), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527682492.ch18
Istituto di Chimica del, Riconoscimento Molecolare, C. N. R., Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano, Italy
Technische Universität, Darmstadt, Department of Organic, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Petersenstr. 22, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany
- Published Online: 27 JUN 2014
- Published Print: 23 JUL 2014
Print ISBN: 9783527335220
Online ISBN: 9783527682492
- cofactor-dependent enzyme;
The methyl group is one of the most widespread functionalities and decorates more than 67% of the top-selling drugs of 2011.
Although significant advances in synthetic chemistry have been achieved allowing the direct methylation, the need for environmentally benign alternatives is growing. As methylation is one of the most common chemical modifications in living cells, a variety of enzymes catalyzing the introduction of methyl groups has been evolved by nature. The enzymes are called methyltransferases (MTs) and are cofactor-dependent. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is by far the most predominant natural source of methyl groups. Since MTs are involved in many cellular processes, their acceptor substrates are diverse, ranging from large biopolymers to small molecules.
Their broad substrate spectrum would allow the use of MTs as catalysts for a wide range of biocatalytic methylation and as shown recently for also other alkylation reactions. The technological exploitation is under intensive investigation. As long as an effective recycling system for SAM is lacking, predominantly in vivo applications (cascade reactions using synthetic biology approaches) will emerge.