18. Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis

  1. Sergio Riva4 and
  2. Wolf-Dieter Fessner5
  1. Ludger Wessjohann1,
  2. Martin Dippe1,
  3. Martin Tengg2 and
  4. Mandana Gruber-Khadjawi3

Published Online: 27 JUN 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9783527682492.ch18

Cascade Biocatalysis : Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions

Cascade Biocatalysis : Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions

How to Cite

Wessjohann, L., Dippe, M., Tengg, M. and Gruber-Khadjawi, M. (2014) Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis, in Cascade Biocatalysis : Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions (eds S. Riva and W.-D. Fessner), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527682492.ch18

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Istituto di Chimica del, Riconoscimento Molecolare, C. N. R., Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano, Italy

  2. 5

    Technische Universität, Darmstadt, Department of Organic, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Petersenstr. 22, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany

Author Information

  1. 1

    Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120, Halle, Germany

  2. 2

    ACIB GmbH, c/o Graz University of Technology, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Petersgasse 14, 8010, Graz, Austria

  3. 3

    ACIB GmbH, c/o Graz University of Technology, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010, Graz, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 JUN 2014
  2. Published Print: 23 JUL 2014

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527335220

Online ISBN: 9783527682492

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Keywords:

  • Biocatalysis;
  • methylation;
  • bioalkylation;
  • biotransformation;
  • cofactor-dependent enzyme;
  • S-Adenosyl-L-methionine

Summary

The methyl group is one of the most widespread functionalities and decorates more than 67% of the top-selling drugs of 2011.

Although significant advances in synthetic chemistry have been achieved allowing the direct methylation, the need for environmentally benign alternatives is growing. As methylation is one of the most common chemical modifications in living cells, a variety of enzymes catalyzing the introduction of methyl groups has been evolved by nature. The enzymes are called methyltransferases (MTs) and are cofactor-dependent. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is by far the most predominant natural source of methyl groups. Since MTs are involved in many cellular processes, their acceptor substrates are diverse, ranging from large biopolymers to small molecules.

Their broad substrate spectrum would allow the use of MTs as catalysts for a wide range of biocatalytic methylation and as shown recently for also other alkylation reactions. The technological exploitation is under intensive investigation. As long as an effective recycling system for SAM is lacking, predominantly in vivo applications (cascade reactions using synthetic biology approaches) will emerge.