• Assessment ;
  • Rubrics;
  • Standards-based;
  • Digital/media literacies ;
  • Critical analysis;
  • New literacies;
  • Specific media (hypertext, Internet, film, music, etc.);
  • Visual literacy;
  • Language learners ;
  • English language learners, English learners, English as a second language, English for speakers of other languages;
  • First, second, etc., language (L1, L2,etc.);
  • Second-language learning;
  • Motivation/engagement ;
  • Choice, preference;
  • Self-efficacy;
  • Oral language ;
  • Language acquisition;
  • Language development;
  • Research methodology ;
  • Formative experiments, design experiments;
  • Theoretical perspectives ;
  • Sociocultural;
  • Writing ;
  • Audience;
  • Purpose;
  • To learners in which of the following categories does your work apply? ;
  • Early adolescence ;
  • Adolescence ;
  • College/university students


In this commentary I unpack the Pandora's Box of issues related to the assessment of English language learners’ literacy skill development in multimodal classrooms. I ask how we might quantify the benefits of multimodal composing, for k-12 as well as college students, given the existing complexity of assessing ELLs’ traditional literacy skills. I use a case study of a college student, as well as data from a project in a k-8 site, to explore these issues and provide some starting points for a larger public discussion. I unpack four key issues and offer approaches to address each one.