• pharmacy practice;
  • pharmacogenomics;
  • managed care

Recently, the separate trajectories of pharmacy benefit management and pharmacogenomics converged. Pharmacogenomic tests have become more widely available for clinical use and at costs within the range of typical health care services. Pharmacy benefit payers continue to seek the precision they can apply to their coverage policies and clinical programs that pharmacogenomics offers. We describe how pharmacogenomics can now make sense as part of a pharmacy benefit and also how pharmacogenomics can be applied in a benefit coverage policy and clinical programs. Detail is provided on clinical program development and implementation processes featuring pharmacogenomics. We also discuss the research needed to support ongoing program development involving pharmacogenomics and describe the current roles of benefit payers and administrators in these research efforts. The legal and ethical dimensions of applying pharmacogenomics in pharmacy benefits are covered and in particular how benefit payers and administrators need to navigate between genetic exceptionalism and applicable laws and regulations. Finally, some thoughts are provided on future opportunities and challenges for pharmacogenomics in pharmacy benefit management and pharmacy in general.