• Motivation/engagement ;
  • Affective influences;
  • Oral language ;
  • Language development;
  • Phonics, phonemic awareness, phonological awareness ;
  • Explicit;
  • Invented spelling;
  • Systematic;
  • Research methodology;
  • Evidence-based;
  • Experimental, quasi-experimental;
  • Strategies, methods, and materials;
  • Instructional models;
  • Instructional strategies, teaching strategies;
  • Struggling learners;
  • At-risk factors;
  • To learners in which of the following categories does your work apply?;
  • Early childhood


This teaching tip applies research on phoneme awareness (PA) to propose an instructional model for teaching PA. Research suggests children need to learn the identifying features of phonemes to recognize them in spoken words. In the model, teachers focus on one phoneme at a time; make it memorable to children through sound analogies supported by illustrations, hand gestures, and graphemes; provide engaging practice detecting the phoneme in “tongue ticklers” and in spoken words; and lead children to transfer their knowledge of phonemes to the task of learning to read words.