The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed sources written within the last ten years, as well as two sources from the last 14 years. Gender-based brain research studies revealed to the author that differences in brain design and development create learning differences between males and females. Evidence from Qualitative and Mixed Method studies also led the author to find lack of confidence, interest level, and topic choice to be significant factors affecting a boy's motivation to read and/or write. Included in the article are strategy suggestions that teachers may implement in their classrooms to better engage boys in literacy.