1. References
  2. Literature Cited
  3. More to Explore
  • Allington, sR.L., McGill-Franzen, A., Camilli, G., Williams, L., Graff, J., Zeig, J., et al. (2010). Addressing summer reading setback among economically disadvantaged elementary students. Reading Psychology, 31(5), 411427. doi:10.1080/02702711.2010.505165.
  • Beck, I., & McKeown, M.G. (2001). Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher, 55(1), 1020.
  • Blaut, J., & Stea, D. (1971). Studies of −geographic learning. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61, 387393.
  • Connor, C.M., Morrison, F.J., Fishman, B.J., Giuliani, S., Luck, M., Underwood, P., et al. (2011). Testing the impact of child characteristics x instruction interactions on third graders' reading comprehension by differentiating literacy instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(3), 189221.
  • Dimino, J.A. (2007). Bridging the gap between research and practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 183189. doi:10.1177/00222194070400020901.
  • Dole, J.A., Duffy, G.G., Roehler, L.R., & Pearson, P.D. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 239264.
  • Dressel, J. (1990). The effects of listening to and discussing different qualities of children's literature on the narrative writing of fifth graders. Research in the Teaching of English, 24(4), 397414.
  • Duffy, G.G. (2003). Explaining reading. New York: Guilford.
  • Duke, N.K., Caughlan, S., Juzwik, M.M., & Martin, N.M. (2011a). Reading and writing genre with purpose in K–8 classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Duke, N.K., Halladay, J.L., & Roberts, K.L. (2013). Reading standards for informational text. In L.M. Morrow, T. Shanahan, & K.K. Wixson (Eds.), Teaching with the Common Core Standards for English language arts, PreK–2 (pp. 4666). New York: Guilford.
  • Duke, N.K., Roberts, K.L., & Norman, R.R. (2011b, December). Young children's understanding of specific graphical devices in informational text. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Reading Association, Orlando, FL.
  • Duke, N.K., Norman, R.R., Roberts, K.L, Martin, N., Knight, J.A., & Morsink, P., et al. (2009, December). Visual literacy development in young children: An investigation with informational texts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Literacy Research Association, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Englert, C.S., & Mariage, T. (1991). Making students partners in the comprehension process: Organizing the reading “POSSE”. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14(2), 123138. doi:10.2307/1510519.
  • Fingeret, L. (2012). Graphics in children's informational texts: A content analysis. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
  • Galda, L., & Cullinan, B.E. (2003). Literature for literacy: What research says about the benefit of using trade books in the classroom. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J.S. Squire, & J.M. Jensen (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (pp. 640648). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Graham, S., Harris, K., & Mason, L. (2006). Improving the writing, knowledge, and motivation of struggling young writers: Effects of self-regulated strategy development with and without peer support. American Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 295340. doi:10.3102/00028312043002295.
  • Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Mason, L. (2005). Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and motivation of struggling young writers: The effects of self-regulated strategy development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(2), 207241. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.08.001.
  • Guthrie, J.T., McRae, A., & Klauda, S.L. (2007). Contributions of concept-oriented reading instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading. Educational Psychologist, 42(4), 237250. doi:10.1080/00461520701621087.
  • Hannus, M., & Hyona, J. (1999). Utilization of illustrations during learning of science textbook passages among low- and high-ability children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(2), 95123. doi:10.1006/ceps.1998.0987.
  • Kern, D., Andre, W., Schilke, R., Barton, J., & McGuire, M.C. (2003). Less is more: Preparing students for state writing assessments. The Reading Teacher, 56(8), 816826.
  • Kerslake, D. (1981). Graphs. In K.M. Hart (Ed.), Children's understanding of mathematics 11–16 (pp. 120136). London: John Murray.
  • Kucan, L., & Beck, I. (1997). Thinking aloud and reading comprehension research: Inquiry, instruction, and social interaction. Review of Educational Research, 67(3), 271299.
  • Mathes, P.G., Howard, J.K., Allen, S.H., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Peer-assisted learning strategies for first-grade readers: Responding to the needs of diverse learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(1), 6294. doi:10.1598/RRQ.33.1.4.
  • McTigue, E.M., & Flowers, E. (2011). Science visual literacy: Learners' perceptions and knowledge of diagrams. The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 578589. doi:10.1598/RT.64.8.3.
  • National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Washington, DC: Authors.
  • Neuman, S.B., & Roskos, K. (1992). Literacy objects as cultural tools: Effects on children's literacy behaviors in play. Reading Research Quarterly, 27(3), 203225. doi:10.2307/747792.
  • Newman, B.M., & Fink, L. (2012). Mentor texts and funds of knowledge: Situating writing within our students' worlds. Voices from the Middle, 20(1), 2530.
  • Norman, R.R. (2009, December). Different processes for different students: A study of the processes prompted by the graphics in two informational texts. Paper presented at the National Reading Conference: Albuquerque, NM.
  • Paquette, K.R. (2007). Encouraging primary students' writing through children's literature. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(2), 155165. doi:10.1007/s10643-007-0183-6.
  • Purcell-Gates, V., Duke, N.K., & Martineau, J.A. (2007). Learning to read and write genre-specific text: Roles of authentic experience and explicit teaching. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(1), 845. doi:10.1598/RRQ.42.1.1.
  • Samuels, S.J. (1970). Effects of pictures on learning to read: Comprehension and attitudes. Review of Educational Research, 40(3), 397407.
  • Schellings, G.L.M., & Van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M. (1995). Main points in an instructional text, as identified by students and by their teachers. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(4), 742756. doi:10.2307/748196.
  • Shah, P., & Hoeffner, J. (2002). Review of graph comprehension research: Implications for instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 14(1), 4749. doi:10.1023/A:1013180410169.
  • Sipe, L. (1998). How picture books work: A semiotically framed theory of text-picture relationships. Children's Literature in Education, 29(2), 97108. doi:10.1023/A:1022459009182.
  • Stevens, R.J., Madden, N.A., Slavin, R.E., & Farnish, A.M. (1987). Cooperative integrated reading and composition: Two field experiments. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4), 433454. doi:10.2307/747701.
  • Taylor, B.M., Pearson, P.D., Peterson, D.S., & Rodriguez, M.C. (2005). The CIERA school change framework: An evidence-based approach to professional development and school reading improvement. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(1), 4069. doi:10.1598/RRQ.40.1.3.
  • Teale, W.H., & Gambrell, L.B. (2007). Raising urban students' literacy achievement by engaging in authentic, challenging work. The Reading Teacher, 60(8), 728739. doi:10.1598/RT.60.8.3.
  • Zucker, T.A., Ward, A.E., & Justice, L.M. (2009). Print referencing during −read-alouds: A technique for increasing emergent readers' print knowledge. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 6272. doi:10.1598/RT.63.1.6.

Literature Cited

  1. References
  2. Literature Cited
  3. More to Explore
  • Berger, M. (1995). Germs make me sick!. New York: Collins.
  • Billman, A.K., & Hilden, K. (2008). Dragonflies. East Lansing: Michigan State University Board of Trustees.
  • Clarke, P. (2004). Scary creatures: Wolves. New York: Franklin Watts.
  • Gill, M. (2009). Under your feet. Huntington Beach, CA: Creative Teaching.
  • Graves, S. (2004). Inventing the telephone. Lebanon, IN: Celebration.
  • Griffiths, R., & Clyne, M. (2005). Animal look-alikes. Parsippany, NJ: Celebration.
  • Heiligman, D. (2002). Honeybees. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
  • Kelley, J. (2000). Baseball. New York: Dorling Kindersley.
  • Logan, M. (2007). Jamaica: Immigration today. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
  • Martin, J.M. (2009). Really cool reptiles. New York: Scholastic.
  • Morgan, S. (2005). Lions. Laguna Hills, CA: QEB.
  • Phelan, G. (2008). Oceans: Properties and living things. Bethesda, MD: Millmark.
  • Prokos, A. (2005). We need insects. Parsippany, NJ: Celebration.
  • Ripley, C. (2008). Is it an insect?. Parsippany, NJ: Pearson.
  • Rockwell, L. (2004). The busy body book: A kid's guide to fitness. New York: Scholastic.
  • Scieszka, J., & Smith, L. (1995). Math curse. New York: Viking.
  • Sill, C. (1997). About birds: A guide for children. Atlanta, GA: Peachtree.
  • Smith, P. (2007). See how it's made. New York: DK.
  • Theodorou, R. (2001). Animals in danger: Leatherback sea turtle. Chicago: Heinemann.
  • Widener, S. (2008). Soccer around the world. Parsippany, NJ: Celebration.
  • Williams, J. (2007). Desert climate. Washington, DC: National Geographic.
  • Zoehfeld, K.W. (1995). How mountains are made. New York: HarperCollins.

More to Explore

  1. References
  2. Literature Cited
  3. More to Explore Lesson Plan

  • “Using Science Texts to Teach the Organizational Features of Nonfiction” by Emily Manning


  • Engaging the Eye Generation: Visual Literacy Strategies for the K–5 Classroom by Johanna Riddle

Journal Article

  • What Do You See? Purposeful Questioning Encourages Visual Literacy During a Lesson on Cells” by Julianne Maner Coleman, M. Jenice “Dee” Goldston, Science and Children, September 2011

Online Resources