Is Adolescent Bullying an Evolutionary Adaptation?
Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 38, Issue 3, pages 222–238, May / June 2012
How to Cite
Volk, A. A., Camilleri, J. A., Dane, A. V. and Marini, Z. A. (2012), Is Adolescent Bullying an Evolutionary Adaptation?. Aggr. Behav., 38: 222–238. doi: 10.1002/ab.21418
- Issue published online: 24 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUN 2011
- evolutionary psychology;
Bullying appears to be ubiquitous across cultures, involving hundreds of millions of adolescents worldwide, and has potentially serious negative consequences for its participants (particularly victims). We challenge the traditionally held belief that bullying results from maladaptive development by reviewing evidence that bullying may be, in part, an evolved, facultative, adaptive strategy that offers some benefits to its practitioners. In support of this view, we draw from research that suggests bullying serves to promote adolescent bullies’ evolutionarily-relevant somatic, sexual, and dominance goals, has a genetic basis, and is widespread among nonhuman animals. We identify and explain differences in the bullying behavior of the two sexes, as well as when and why bullying is adaptive and when it may not be. We offer commentary on both the failures and successes of current anti-bullying interventions from an evolutionary perspective and suggest future directions for both research and anti-bullying interventions. Aggr. Behav. 38:222–238, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.