Equally contributing authors.
Isoflurane suppresses early cortical activity
Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of American Neurological Association.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 15–26, January 2014
How to Cite
Sitdikova, G., Zakharov, A., Janackova, S., Gerasimova, E., Lebedeva, J., Inacio, A. R., Zaynutdinova, D., Minlebaev, M., Holmes, G. L. and Khazipov, R. (2014), Isoflurane suppresses early cortical activity. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 1: 15–26. doi: 10.1002/acn3.16
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 29 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 15 AUG 2013
- Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Grant Number: ANR-09-MNPS-006
- Government of the Russian Federation. Grant Number: 11.G34.31.0075
- Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale. Grant Number: DEQ20110421301
Isoflurane and other volatile anesthetics are widely used in children to induce deep and reversible coma, but they may also exert neurotoxic actions. The effects of volatile anesthetics on the immature brain activity remain elusive, however.
The effects of isoflurane on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity were explored using intracortical extracellular field potential and multiple unit recordings in the rat barrel cortex from birth to adulthood.
During the first postnatal week, isoflurane suppressed cortical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. At surgical anesthesia levels (1.5–2%), isoflurane completely suppressed the electroencephalogram and silenced cortical neurons. Although sensory potentials evoked by the principal whisker deflection persisted, sensory-evoked early gamma and spindle-burst oscillations were completely suppressed by isoflurane. Isoflurane-induced burst-suppression pattern emerged during the second postnatal week and matured through the first postnatal month. Bursts in adolescent and adult rats were characterized by activation of entire cortical columns with a leading firing of infragranular neurons, and were triggered by principal and adjacent whiskers stimulation, and by auditory and visual stimuli, indicating an involvement of horizontal connections in their generation and horizontal spread.
The effects of isoflurane on cortical activity shift from total suppression of activity to burst-suppression pattern at the end of the first postnatal week. Developmental emergence of bursts likely involves a development of the intracortical short- and long-range connections. We hypothesize that complete suppression of cortical activity under isoflurane anesthesia during the first postnatal week may explain neuronal apoptosis stimulated by volatile anesthetics in the neonatal rats.