A new instrument, the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (OSIQ), was designed to assess individual differences in visual imagery preferences and experiences. The OSIQ consists of two scales: an object imagery scale that assesses preferences for representing and processing colourful, pictorial, and high-resolution images of individual objects and a spatial imagery scale that assesses preferences for representing and processing schematic images, spatial relations amongst objects, and spatial transformations. Across a series of studies, the object imagery scale was significantly correlated with the performance on object imagery tasks; the spatial imagery scale was significantly correlated with the performance on spatial imagery tasks; but neither correlated with measures of intelligence. Additionally, compared to visual artists and humanities professionals, scientists reported higher spatial imagery ratings; however, compared to scientists and humanities professionals, visual artists reported higher object imagery ratings. Thus, the results from the studies supported the predictive, discriminant, and ecological validity of the OSIQ. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.