• 1
    Wu X, Muzny D, Lee C, Caskey C. Two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution. J Mol Evol 1992; 34: 7884.
  • 2
    Oda M, Satta Y, Takenaka O, Takahata N. Loss of urate oxidase activity in hominoids and its evolutionary implications. Mol Biol Evol 2002; 19: 64053.
  • 3
    Ames B, Cathcart R, Schwiers E, Hochstein P. Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1981; 78: 685862.
  • 4
    Baker J, Krishnan E, Chen L, Schumacher H. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: recent developments, where do they leave us? Am J Med 2005; 118: 81626.
  • 5
    Becker M, Jolly M. Hyperuricemia and associated diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2006; 32: 27593.
  • 6
    Wannamethee S. Serum uric acid and risk of coronary heart disease. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11: 412532.
  • 7
    Tseng C. Independent association of uric acid levels with peripheral arterial disease in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2004; 21: 7249.
  • 8
    Baker J, Schumacher H, Krishnan E. Serum uric acid level and risk for peripheral arterial disease: analysis of data from the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Angiology 2007; 58: 4507.
  • 9
    Kim S, De Vera M, Choi H. Gout and mortality. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26 Suppl 51: S1159.
  • 10
    Feig D, Kang DH, Johnson R. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 181121.
  • 11
    Kim S, Guevara J, Kim K, Choi H, Heitjan D, Albert D. Hyperuricemia and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 88592.
  • 12
    Butler R, Morris A, Belch J, Hill A, Struthers A. Allopurinol normalizes endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetics with mild hypertension. Hypertension 2000; 35: 74651.
  • 13
    Kang D, Nakagawa T, Feng L, Watanabe S, Han L, Mazzali M, et al. A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 288897.
  • 14
    Johnson R, Kang D, Feig D, Kivlighn S, Kanellis J, Watanabe S, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension 2003; 41: 11839.
  • 15
    Culleton BF, Larson MG, Kannel WB, Levy D. Serum uric acid and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Framingham Heart Study. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 713.
  • 16
    Kanellis J, Johnson R. Elevated uric acid and ischemic stroke: accumulating evidence that it is injurious and not neuroprotective. Stroke 2003; 34: 19568.
  • 17
    Weir C, Muir S, Walters M, Lees K. Serum urate as an independent predictor of poor outcome and future vascular events after acute stroke. Stroke 2003; 34: 19517.
  • 18
    Lehto S, Niskanen L, Ronnemaa T, Laakso M. Serum uric acid is a strong predictor of stroke in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Stroke 1998; 29: 6359.
  • 19
    Mazza A, Pessina A, Pavei A, Scarpa R, Tikhonoff V, Casiglia E. Predictors of stroke mortality in elderly people from the general population: the CArdiovascular STudy in the ELderly. Eur J Epidemiol 2002; 17: 1097104.
  • 20
    Fang J, Alderman MH. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2000; 283: 240410.
  • 21
    Neogi T. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: perhaps not so benign? J Rheumatol 2008; 35: 7347.
  • 22
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson G, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000; 283: 200812.
  • 23
    Wells G, Shea A, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch J, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. URL:
  • 24
    Young D, Huth E. SI units for clinical measurement. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1998.
  • 25
    Wilcox W, Khalaf A, Weinberger A, Kippen I, Klinenberg J. Solubility of uric acid and monosodium urate. Med Biol Eng 1972; 10: 52231.
  • 26
    DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986; 7: 17788.
  • 27
    Egger M, Smith G, Altman D. Systematic reviews in health care. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Publishing; 2001.
  • 28
    Higgins J, Thompson S. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002; 21: 153958.
  • 29
    Sterne J, Egger M. Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. J Clin Epidemiol 2001; 54: 104655.
  • 30
    Freedman D, Williamson D, Gunter E, Byers T. Relation of serum uric acid to mortality and ischemic heart disease: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 63744.
  • 31
    Goldberg RJ, Burchfiel CM, Benfante R, Chiu D, Reed DM, Yano K. Lifestyle and biologic factors associated with atherosclerotic disease in middle-aged men: 20-year findings from the Honolulu Heart Program. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 68694.
  • 32
    Krishnan E, Baker JF, Furst DE, Schumacher HR. Gout and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 268896.
  • 33
    Krishnan E, Svendsen K, Neaton JD, Grandits G, Kuller LH, and the MRFIT Research Group. Long-term cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged men with gout. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 110410.
  • 34
    Levine W, Dyer AR, Shekelle R, Schoenberger J, Stamler J. Serum uric acid and 11.5-year mortality of middle-aged women: findings of the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry. J Clin Epidemiol 1989; 42: 25767.
  • 35
    Persky VW, Dyer AR, Idris-Soven E, Stamler J, Shekelle RB, Schoenberger JA, et al. Uric acid: a risk factor for coronary heart disease? Circulation 1979; 59: 96977.
  • 36
    Moriarity J, Folsom A, Iribarren C, Nieto F, Rosamond W. Serum uric acid and risk of coronary heart disease: atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10: 13643.
  • 37
    Aboa Eboule A, de Smet P, Dramaix M, de Backer G, Kornitzer M. Relation between uricemia and all-causes cardiovascular and coronary mortality in both genders of non-selected sample of the Belgium population. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2001; 49: 5319. In French.
  • 38
    Baibas N, Trichopoulou A, Voridis E, Trichopoulos D. Residence in mountainous compared with lowland areas in relation to total and coronary mortality: a study in rural Greece. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59: 2748.
  • 39
    Bos MJ, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Breteler MM. Uric acid is a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke: the Rotterdam Study. Stroke 2006; 37: 15037.
  • 40
    Gerber Y, Tanne D, Medalie JH, Goldbourt U. Serum uric acid and long-term mortality from stroke, coronary heart disease and all causes. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2006; 13: 1938.
  • 41
    Liese A, Hense H, Lowel H, Doring A, Tietze M, Keil U. Association of serum uric acid with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality and incident myocardial infarction in the MONICA Augsburg cohort: World Health Organization monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiology 1999; 10: 3917.
  • 42
    Meisinger C, Koenig W, Baumert J, Doring A. Uric acid levels are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality independent of systemic inflammation in men from the general population: the MONICA/KORA cohort study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008; 28: 118692.
  • 43
    Petersson B, Trell E. Raised serum urate concentration as risk factor for premature mortality in middle aged men: relation to death from cancer. Br Med J 1983; 287: 79.
  • 44
    Puddu P, Lanti M, Menotti A, Mancini M, Zanchetti A, Cirillo M, et al. Serum uric acid for short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence in the Gubbio Population Study. Acta Cardiol 2001; 56: 24351.
  • 45
    Strasak A, Kelleher C, Brant L, Rapp K, Ruttmann E, Concin H, et al. Serum uric acid is an independent predictor for all major forms of cardiovascular death in 28,613 elderly women: a prospective 21-year follow-up study. Int J Cardiol 2008; 125: 2329.
  • 46
    Strasak A, Ruttmann E, Brant L, Kelleher C, Klenk J, Concin H, et al. Serum uric acid and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a prospective long-term study of 83,683 Austrian men. Clin Chem 2008; 54: 27384.
  • 47
    Wheeler JG, Juzwishin KD, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Danesh J. Serum uric acid and coronary heart disease in 9,458 incident cases and 155,084 controls: prospective study and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 2005; 2: e76.
  • 48
    Baba T, Amasaki Y, Soda M, Hida A, Imaizumi M, Ichimaru S, et al. Fatty liver and uric acid levels predict incident coronary heart disease but not stroke among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. Hypertens Res 2007; 30: 8239.
  • 49
    Chen J, Chuang S, Chen H, Yeh W, Pan W. Serum uric acid level as an independent risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular, and ischemic stroke mortality: a Chinese cohort study. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 22532.
  • 50
    Chien KL, Hsu HC, Sung FC, Su TC, Chen MF, Lee YT, et al. Hyperuricemia as a risk factor on cardiovascular events in Taiwan: the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort Study. Atherosclerosis 2005; 183: 14755.
  • 51
    Hakoda M, Masunari N, Yamada M, Fujiwara S, Suzuki G, Kodama K, et al. Serum uric acid concentration as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality: a longterm cohort study of atomic bomb survivors. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 90612.
  • 52
    Jee SH, Lee SY, Kim MT. Serum uric acid and risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease or all causes in men. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2004; 11: 18591.
  • 53
    Tomita M, Mizuno S, Yamanaka H, Hosoda Y, Sakuma K, Matuoka Y, et al. Does hyperuricemia affect mortality? A prospective cohort study of Japanese male workers. J Epidemiol 2000; 10: 4039.
  • 54
    Lin K, Tsai S, Lin H, Chou P. Different progressions of hyperglycemia and diabetes among hyperuricemic men and women in the kinmen study. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 115965.
  • 55
    Longo-Mbenza B, Luila E, Mbete P, Vita E. Is hyperuricemia a risk factor of stroke and coronary heart disease among Africans? Int J Cardiol 1999; 71: 1722.
  • 56
    Lowe G, Fowkes F, Dawes J, Donnan P, Lennie S, Housley E. Blood viscosity, fibrinogen, and activation of coagulation and leukocytes in peripheral arterial disease and the normal population in the Edinburgh Artery Study. Circulation 1993; 87: 191520.
  • 57
    Assmann G, Schulte H, Cullen P. New and classical risk factors: the Münster heart study (PROCAM). Eur J Med Res 1997; 2: 23742.
  • 58
    Kitamura A, Iso H, Iida M, Naito Y, Sato S, Jacobs D, et al. Trends in the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Japanese men from 1963 to 1994. Am J Med 2002; 112: 1049.
  • 59
    De Bacquer D, de Backer G, de Buyzere M, Kornitzer M. Is low serum chloride level a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality? J Cardiovasc Risk 1998; 5: 17784.
  • 60
    Iribarren C, Sharp DS, Curb JD, Yano K. High uric acid: a metabolic marker of coronary heart disease among alcohol abstainers. J Clin Epidemiol 1996; 49: 6738.
  • 61
    Medalie J, Kahn H, Neufeld H, Riss E, Goldbourt U. Five-year myocardial infarction incidence. II. Association of single variables to age and birthplace. J Chronic Dis 1973; 26: 32549.
  • 62
    Athyros V, Mikhailidis D, Liberopoulos E, Kakafika A, Karagiannis A, Papageorgiou A, et al. Effect of statin treatment on renal function and serum uric acid levels and their relation to vascular events in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 11827.
  • 63
    Hoieggen A, Alderman MH, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Devereux RB, De Faire U, et al, and the LIFE Study Group. The impact of serum uric acid on cardiovascular outcomes in the LIFE study. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 10419.
  • 64
    Desager J, Hulhoven R, Harvengt C. Uricosuric effect of fenofibrate in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1980; 20: 5604.
  • 65
    Elisaf M, Tsimichodimos V, Bairaktari E, Siamopoulos K. Effect of micronized fenofibrate and losartan combination on uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1999; 34: 603.
  • 66
    Grundy SM, Hansen B, Smith SC Jr, Cleeman JI, Kahn RA, the American Heart Association, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the American Diabetes Association. Clinical management of metabolic syndrome: report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association conference on scientific issues related to management. Circulation 2004; 109: 5516.
  • 67
    Feig D, Soletsky B, Johnson R. Effect of allopurinol on blood pressure of adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. JAMA 2008; 300: 92432.
  • 68
    Luk A, Levin G, Moore E, Zhou XH, Kestenbaum B, Choi H. Allopurinol and mortality in hyperuricemic patients. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2009; 48: 8046.
  • 69
    Choi H, Curhan G. Independent impact of gout on mortality and risk for coronary heart disease. Circulation 2007; 116: 894900.
  • 70
    Cohen S, Kimmel P, Neff R, Agodoa L, Abbott K. Association of incident gout and mortality in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19: 220410.
  • 71
    Sanderson S, Tatt I, Higgins J. Tools for assessing quality and susceptibility to bias in observational studies in epidemiology: a systematic review and annotated bibliography. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 66676.