SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Manger B, Kalden JR. Joint and connective tissue ultrasonography: a rheumatologic bedside procedure? A German experience. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 73642.
  • 2
    Wakefield RJ, Goh E, Conaghan G, Kaim Z, Emery P. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in Europe: results of a rheumatologist-based survey at a EULAR meeting. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 12513.
  • 3
    Samuels J, Abramson SB. The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound: rheumatologists in the US [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58 Suppl: S470.
  • 4
    McDonald DG, Leopold GR. Ultrasound B-scanning in the differentiation of Baker's cyst and thrombophlebitis. Br J Radiol 1972; 45: 72932.
  • 5
    Backhaus M, Burmeister GR, Gerber T, Grassi W, Machold KP, Swen WA, et al. Guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 6419.
  • 6
    Kane D, Balint PV, Sturrock R, Grassi W. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: a state of the art review in rheumatology. Part 2. Clinical indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 82938.
  • 7
    Iagnocco A, Epis O, Delle Sedie A, Meenagh G, Riente L, Filippucci E, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XVII. Role of colour Doppler and power Doppler. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 75962.
  • 8
    American College of Rheumatology Extremity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task Force. Extremity magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis: report of the American College of Rheumatology Extremity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task Force [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 103447.
  • 9
    Roemer FW, van Holsbeeck M, Genant HK. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology: a radiologic perspective [editorial]. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 4913.
  • 10
    Kane D, Balint PV, Sturrock R, Grassi W. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: a state of the art review in rheumatology. Part 1. Current controversies and issues in the development of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 8238.
  • 11
    Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 15.
  • 12
    Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. I. Ultrasonography of the shoulder. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 611.
  • 13
    Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. II. Ultrasonography of the hand and wrist. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 11822.
  • 14
    Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. III. Ultrasonography of the hip. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 22932.
  • 15
    Meenagh G, Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. IV. Ultrasonography of the knee. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 35760.
  • 16
    Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Valesini G, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. V. Ultrasonography of the ankle and foot. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 4938.
  • 17
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Valesini G, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. VI. Ultrasonography of the elbow, sacroiliac, parasternal and temporomandibular joints. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 61721.
  • 18
    Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. VII. Ultrasound imaging in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 510.
  • 19
    Meenagh G, Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. VIII. Ultrasound imaging in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 1725.
  • 20
    Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Grassi W, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. IX. Ultrasound imaging in spondyloarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 34953.
  • 21
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Grassi W, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. X. Ultrasound imaging in crystal-related arthropathies. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 5137.
  • 22
    Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XI. Ultrasound imaging in regional pain syndromes. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 6725.
  • 23
    Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Iagnocco A, Bombardieri S, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XII. Ultrasound imaging in sports medicine. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 8069.
  • 24
    Filippucci E, Meenagh G, Epis O, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Montecucco C, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XIII. New trends: three-dimensional ultrasonography. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 14.
  • 25
    Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Epis O, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XIV. Ultrasound imaging in connective tissue diseases. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 2303.
  • 26
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Epis O, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XV. Ultrasound imaging in vasculitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 3914.
  • 27
    Epis O, Iagnocco A, Meenagh G, Riente L, Delle Sedie A, Filippucci E, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XVI. Ultrasound-guided procedures. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 5158.
  • 28
    Hangiandreou NJ. B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology. Radiographics 2003; 23: 101933.
  • 29
    Read JW. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: basic principles. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 1998; 2: 20310.
  • 30
    Boote EJ. Doppler US techniques: concepts of blood flow detection and flow dynamics. Radiographics 2003; 23: 131527.
  • 31
    Thiele R. Doppler ultrasonography in rheumatology: adding color to the picture. J Rheumatol 2008; 35: 810.
  • 32
    Terslev L, von der Recke P, Torp-Pedersen S, Koenig MJ, Bliddal H. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2008; 35: 4953.
  • 33
    DeZordo T, Mlekusch SP, Feuchtner GM, Mur E, Schirmer M, Klauser AS. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Radiol 2007; 64: 22230.
  • 34
    Torp-Pedersen ST, Terslev L. Settings and artifacts relevant in color/power Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 1439.
  • 35
    Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Bombardieri S. Limits and perspectives of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of rheumatic diseases. Mod Rheumatol 2008; 18: 12531.
  • 36
    Wakefield RJ, Balint PV, Szkudlarek M, Filipucci E, Backhaus M, D'Agostino MA, et al. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 24857.
  • 37
    Joshua F, Lassere M, Bruyn GA, Szkudlarek M, Naredo E, Schmidt W, et al. Summary findings of a systematic review of the ultrasound assessment of synovitis. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 83947.
  • 38
    Wakefield RJ, D'Agostino MA, Iagnocco A, Filipucci E, Backhaus M, Scheel AK, et al. The OMERACT Ultrasound Group: status of current activities and research directions. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 84851.
  • 39
    Schmidt WA, Schmidt H, Schicke B, Gromnica-Ihle E. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 98894.
  • 40
    Scheel AK, Schmidt WA, Hermann KG, Bruyn GA, D'Agostino MA, Grassi W, et al. Interobserver reliability of rheumatologists performing musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a EULAR “Train the Trainers” course. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 10439.
  • 41
    Naredo E, Moller I, Moragues C, de Agustin JJ, Scheel AK, Grassi W, et al. Interobserver reliability in musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a “Teach the Teachers” rheumatologist course. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 149.
  • 42
    Balint PV, Sturrock RD. Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility in musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging measurements. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19: 8992.
  • 43
    Qvistgaard E, Torp-Pedersen S, Christensen R, Bliddal H. Reproducibility and inter-reader agreement of a scoring system for ultrasound evaluation of hip osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 16139.
  • 44
    Bruyn GA, Naredo E, Moller I, Moragues C, Garrido J, de Bocket GH, et al. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68: 35761.
  • 45
    Boutry N, Larde A, Demondion X, Cortet B, Cotten H, Cotten A. Metacarpophalangeal joints at US in asymptomatic volunteers and cadaveric specimens. Radiology 2004; 232: 71624.
  • 46
    Szkudlarek M, Court-Payen M, Jacobsen S, Klarlund M, Thomsen HS, Ostergaard M. Interobserver agreement in ultrasonography of the finger and toe joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 95562.
  • 47
    Wakefield RJ, Gibbon WW, Conaghan PG, O'Connor P, McGonagle D, Pease C, et al. The value of sonography in the detection of bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with conventional radiography. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 276270.
  • 48
    Song IH, Althoff CE, Hermann KG, Scheel AK, Knetsch T, Schoenharting M, et al. Knee osteoarthritis: efficacy of a new method of contrast-enhanced musculoskeletal ultrasonography in detection of synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 1925.
  • 49
    Kissin EY, Nishio J, Yang M, Backhaus M, Balint PV, Bruyn GA, et al. Self-directed learning of basic musculoskeletal ultrasound among rheumatologists in the United States. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010; 62: 15560.
  • 50
    Fester EW, Murray PM, Sanders TG, Ingari JV, Leyendecker J, Leis HL. The efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in detecting disruptions of the forearm interosseous membrane: a cadaver study. J Hand Surg 2002; 27A: 41824.
  • 51
    Weiner SM, Jurenz S, Uhl M, Lange-Nolde A, Warnatz K, Peter HH, et al. Ultrasonography in the assessment of peripheral joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis: a comparison with radiography, MRI and scintigraphy. Clin Rheumatol 2008; 27: 9839.
  • 52
    Gerling MC, Pfirrmann CW, Farooki S, Kim C, Boyd GJ, Aronoff MD, et al. Posterior tibialis tendon tears: comparison of the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for the detection of surgically created longitudinal tears in cadavers. Invest Radiol 2003; 38: 516.
  • 53
    Nallamshetty L, Nazarian LN, Schweitzer ME, Morrison WB, Parellada JA, Articolo GA, et al. Evaluation of posterior tibial pathology: comparison of sonography and MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol 2005; 34: 37580.
  • 54
    Kamel M, Hazen E, Mansour R. Ultrasound detection of heel enthesitis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 7748.
  • 55
    Olivieri I, Barozzi L, Padula A, De Matteis M, Pierro A, Cantini F, et al. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in spondyloarthropathy: assessment by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 13527.
  • 56
    Weidekamm C, Koller M, Weber M, Kainberger F. Diagnostic value of high-resolution B-mode and Doppler sonography for imaging of hand and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 32533.
  • 57
    Boutry N, Vanderhofstadt A, Peetrons P. Ultrasonography of anterosuperior calcaneal process fracture: report of two cases. J Ultrasound Med 2006; 25: 3815.
  • 58
    Jin W, Yang DM, Kim HC, Ryu KN. Diagnostic values of sonography for assessment of sternal fractures compared with conventional radiography and bone scans. J Ultrasound Med 2006; 25: 12638.
  • 59
    Senall JA, Failla JM, Bouffard JA, van Holsbeeck M. Ultrasound for the early diagnosis of clinically suspected scaphoid fracture. J Hand Surg 2004; 29A: 4005.
  • 60
    Wakefield RJ, Green MJ, Marzo-Ortega H, Conaghan PG, Gibbon WW, McGonagle D, et al. Should oligoarthritis be reclassified? Ultrasound reveals a high prevalence of subclinical disease. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 3825.
  • 61
    Kane D, Balint PV, Sturrock RD. Ultrasonography is superior to clinical examination in the detection and localization of knee joint effusion in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 96671.
  • 62
    Klauser AS, Wipfler E, Dejaco C, Moriggi B, Duftner C, Schirmer M. Diagnostic values of history and clinical examination to predict ultrasound signs of chronic and acute enthesitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 54853.
  • 63
    Ferri M, Finlay K, Popowich T, Stamp G, Schuringa P, Friedman L. Sonography of full-thickness supraspinatus tears: comparison of patient positioning technique with surgical correlation. Am J Roentgenol 2005; 184: 1804.
  • 64
    Jacobson JA, Lancaster S, Prasad A, van Holsbeeck MT, Craig JG, Kolowich P. Full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: value of US signs in diagnosis. Radiology 2004; 230: 23442.
  • 65
    Hodler J, Loredo RA, Longo C, Trudell D, Yu JS, Resnick D. Assessment of articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head: MR-anatomic correlation in cadavers. Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165: 61520.
  • 66
    Wallny T, Wagner UA, Prange S, Schmitt O, Reich H. Evaluation of chronic tears of the rotator cuff by ultrasound: a new index. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1999; 81: 6758.
  • 67
    Koski JM. Axillary ultrasound of the glenohumeral joint. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 6647.
  • 68
    Karim Z, Wakefield RJ, Quinn M, Conaghan PG, Brown AK, Veale DJ, et al. Validation and reproducibility of ultrasonography in the detection of synovitis in the knee: a comparison with arthroscopy and clinical examination. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 38794.
  • 69
    Koski JM, Saarakkala S, Helle M, Hakulinen U, Heikkinen JO, Hermunen H. Power Doppler ultrasonography and synovitis: correlating ultrasound imaging with histopathological findings and evaluating the performance of ultrasound equipments. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 15905.
  • 70
    Walther M, Harms H, Krenn V, Radke S, Faehndrich TP, Gohlke F. Correlation of power Doppler sonography with vascularity of the synovial tissue of the knee joint in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 3318.
  • 71
    Lee SH, Au JS, Shin MJ, Kim SM, Kim N, Suh SH. Quantitative assessment of synovial vascularity using contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: correlation with histologic findings in arthritic rabbit knee model. Korean J Radiol 2008; 9: 4553.
  • 72
    Karim Z, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG, Lawson CA, Goh E, Quinn MA, et al. The impact of ultrasonography on diagnosis and management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 29323.
  • 73
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Dahmane M, Pugliese F, Bianchi-Zamorani MP, Valle M. Ultrasound of tendons and nerves. Europ Radiol 2001; 12: 4455.
  • 74
    Klarlund M, Narvestad E, Court-Payen M, Strandberg C, Jensen KE. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8: R52.
  • 75
    Taylor PC, Steuer A, Gruber J, Cosgrove DO, Blomley MJ, Marsters PA, et al. Comparison of ultrasonographic assessment of synovitis and joint vascularity with radiographic evaluation in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of infliximab therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 110716.
  • 76
    Brown AK, Conaghan PG, Karim Z, Quinn MA, Ikeda K, Peterfy CG, et al. An explanation for the apparent dissociation between clinical remission and continued structural deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 295867.
  • 77
    Olivieri I, Scarano E, Padula A, Giasi V, Priolo F. Dactylitis: a term for different digit disease. Scand J Rheumatol 2006; 35: 33340.
  • 78
    Balint PV, Kane D, Wilson H, McInnes IB, Sturrock RD. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 61: 90510.
  • 79
    Alcalde M, Acebes JC, Cruz M, Gonzalez-Hombrado L, Herrero-Beaumont G, Sanchez-Pernaute O. A sonographic enthesitic index of lower limbs is a valuable tool in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 10159.
  • 80
    Szkudlarek M. Ultrasonography of the finger and toe joints in rheumatoid arthritis [dissertation]. Copenhagen (Denmark): University of Copenhagen; 2003.
  • 81
    McQueen FM, Stewart N, Crabbe J, Robinson E, Yeoman S, Tan PL, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis reveals progression of erosions despite clinical improvement. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58: 15663.
  • 82
    Naredo E, Collado P, Cruz A, Palop MJ, Cabero F, Richi P, et al. Longitudinal power Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of joint inflammatory activity in early rheumatoid arthritis: predictive value in disease activity and radiologic progression. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 11624.
  • 83
    Buchmann RF, Jaramillo D. Imaging of articular disorders in children. Radiol Clin N Am 2004; 42: 15168.
  • 84
    Karmazyn B, Bowyer SL, Schmidt KM, Ballinger SH, Buckwalter K, Beam TT, et al. US findings of metacarpophalangeal joints in children with idiopathic juvenile arthritis. Pediatric Radiol 2007; 37: 47582.
  • 85
    El-Miedany YM, Housny IH, Mansour HM, Mourad HG, Mehanna AM, Megeed MA. Ultrasound versus MRI in the evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis of the knee. J Bone Spine 2001; 68: 22230.
  • 86
    Shanmugavel C, Sodhi KS, Sandhu MS, Sidhu R, Singh S, Katariya S, et al. Role of power Doppler sonography in evaluation of therapeutic response of the knee in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2008; 28: 5738.
  • 87
    Marchal GJ, van Holsbeeck MT, Raes M, Favril A, Verbeken EE, Casteels-Vandaele M, et al. Transient synovitis of the hip in children: role of US. Radiology 1987; 162: 8258.
  • 88
    Thiele RG, Schlesinger N. Diagnosis of gout by ultrasound. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46: 111621.
  • 89
    Wright SA, Filippucci E, McVeigh C, Grey A, McCarron M, Grassi W, et al. High-resolution ultrasonography of the first metatarsal phalangeal joint in gout: a controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 85964.
  • 90
    Perez-Ruiz F, Martin I, Canteli B. Ultrasonographic measurement of tophi as an outcome measure for chronic gout. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 188893.
  • 91
    Puig JG, de Miguel E, Castillo MC, Rocha AL, Martinez MA, Torres RJ. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: impact of ultrasonography. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2008; 27: 5925.
  • 92
    Rettenbacher T, Ennemoser S, Weirich H, Ulmer H, Hartig F, Klotz W, et al. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 62130.
  • 93
    Coari G, Iagnocco A, Zoppini A. Chondrocalcinosis: sonographic study of the knee. Clin Rheumatol 1995; 14: 5114.
  • 94
    Filippucci E, Riveros MG, Georgescu D, Salaffi F, Grassi W. Hyaline cartilage involvement in patients with gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: an ultrasound study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009; 17: 17881.
  • 95
    Frediani B, Filippou G, Falsetti P, Lorenzini S, Baldi F, Acciai C, et al. Diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease: ultrasonographic criteria proposed. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 63840.
  • 96
    Garcia GM, McCord GC, Kumar R. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition. Semin Musculoskeletal Radiol 2003; 7: 188793.
  • 97
    Keen HI, Wakefield RJ, Grainger AJ, Hensor EM, Emery P, Conaghan PG. Can ultrasonography improve on radiographic assessment in osteoarthritis of the hands? A comparison between radiographic and ultrasonographic detected pathology. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 111620.
  • 98
    Ellegaard K, Torp-Pedersen S, Terslev L, Henriksen M, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Bliddal H. Ultrasound colour-Doppler measurements in a single joint as measure of disease activity in a prospective cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 Suppl 2: 299.
  • 99
    Boers M, Brooks P, Strand CV, Tugwell P. The OMERACT filter for outcome measures in rheumatology. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1989.
  • 100
    McNally EG. Ultrasound of the small joints of the hands and feet: current status. Skeletal Radiol 2008; 37: 99113.
  • 101
    Ostergaard M, Szkudlarek M. Ultrasonography: a valid method for assessing rheumatoid arthritis? [editorial]. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 6816.
  • 102
    Ostergaard M, Wiell C. Ultrasonography in rheumatoid arthritis: a very promising method still needing more validation. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 16: 22330.
  • 103
    Farrant JM, Grainger AJ, O'Connor PJ. Advanced imaging in rheumatoid arthritis. Part 2: erosions. Skeletal Radiol 2007; 36: 3819.
  • 104
    Farrant JM, O'Connor PJ, Grainger AJ. Advanced imaging in rheumatoid arthritis. Part 1: synovitis. Skeletal Radiol 2007; 36: 26979.
  • 105
    D'Agostino MA, Wakefield RJ, Backhaus M, Balint PV, Bruyn GA, Filippucci E, et al. Evaluation of the intra- and inter-reader reliability of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) for detecting and scoring synovitis of several joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using a validated scoring system: a report of the EULAR OMERACT US group [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 Suppl 2: 422.
  • 106
    D'Agostino MA, Wakefield RJ, Backhaus M, Balint PV, Bruyn GA, Filippucci E, et al. Combined evaluation of influence of sonographer and machine type on the reliability of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) for detecting, scoring and scanning synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: results of an intermachine reliability exercise [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 Suppl 2: 421.
  • 107
    Backhaus M, Burmester GR, Sandrock D, Loreck D, Hess D, Scholz A, et al. Prospective two year follow up study comparing novel and conventional imaging procedures in patients with arthritic finger joints. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 895904.
  • 108
    Bajaj S, Lopez-Ben R, Oster R, Alarcon GS. Ultrasound detects rapid progression of erosive disease in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective longitudinal study. Skeletal Radiol 2007; 36: 1238.
  • 109
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Farine A, Salaffi F, Cervini C. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of bone erosions. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 98103.
  • 110
    Dohn UM, Ejbjerg BJ, Court-Payen M, Hasselquist M, Narvestad E, Szkudlarek M, et al. Are bone erosions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography true erosions? A comparison with computed tomography in rheumatoid arthritis metacarpophalangeal joints. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8: R110.
  • 111
    Szkudlarek M, Narvestad E, Klarlund M, Court-Payen M, Thomsen HS, Ostergaard M. Ultrasonography of the metatarsophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography, and clinical examination. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 210312.
  • 112
    Scheel AK, Hermann KG, Ohrndorf S, Werner C, Schirmer C, Detert J, et al. Prospective 7 year follow up imaging study comparing radiography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis finger joints. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 595600.
  • 113
    McGonagle D, Gibbon W, O'Connor P, Blythe D, Wakefield R, Green M, et al. A preliminary study of ultrasound aspiration of bone erosion in early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 32931.
  • 114
    Stone M, Bergin D, Whelan B, Maher M, Murray J, McCarthy C. Power Doppler ultrasound assessment of rheumatoid hand synovitis. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 197982.
  • 115
    Teh J, Stevens K, Williamson L, Leung J, McNally EG. Power Doppler ultrasound of rheumatoid synovitis: quantification of therapeutic response. Br J Radiol 2003; 76: 8759.
  • 116
    Shahin AA, El-Mofty SA, El-Sheikh EA, Hafez HA, Ragab OM. Power Doppler sonography in the evaluation and follow-up of knee involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 2001; 60: 14855.
  • 117
    Strunk J, Strube K, Muller-Ladner U, Lange U. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography confirms early reduction of synovial perfusion after intra-articular steroid injection [letter]. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 4112.
  • 118
    Filippucci E, Farina A, Carotti M, Salaffi F, Grassi W. Grey scale and power Doppler sonographic changes induced by intra-articular steroid injection treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 7403.
  • 119
    Terslev L, Torp-Pedersen S, Qvistgaard E, Danneskiold-Samsoe B, Bliddal H. Estimation of inflammation by Doppler ultrasound: quantitative changes after intra-articular treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 104953.
  • 120
    Newman JS, Laing TJ, McCarthy CJ, Adler RS. Power Doppler sonography of synovitis: assessment of therapeutic response. Radiology 1996; 198: 5824.
  • 121
    Iagnocco A, Cerioni A, Coari G, Ossandon A, Masciangelo R, Valesini G. Intra-articular methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a clinical and sonographic study. Clin Rheumatol 2006; 25: 15963.
  • 122
    Fiocco U, Ferro F, Vezzu M, Cozzi L, Checchetto C, Sfriso P, et al. Rheumatoid and psoriatic knee synovitis: clinical, grey scale, and power Doppler ultrasound assessment of the response to etanercept. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 899905.
  • 123
    Takahashi A, Sato A, Yamadera Y, Takeda I, Kanno T, Ohguchi Y, et al. Doppler sonographic evaluation of effect of treatment with infliximab (Remicade) for rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol 2005; 15: 3740.
  • 124
    Filippucci E, Iagnocco A, Salaffi F, Cerioni A, Valesini G, Grassi W. Power Doppler sonography monitoring of synovial perfusion at the wrist joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with adalimumab. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 14337.
  • 125
    Kasukawa R, Shio K, Kanno Y, Sato A, Takahashi A, Yamadera Y, et al. Doppler ultrasound measurements of knee joint synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab. Mod Rheumatol 2007; 17: 3769.
  • 126
    Naredo E, Rodriguez M, Campos C, Rodriguez-Heredia JM, Medina JA, Giner E, et al, for the Ultrasound Group of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. Validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness of a twelve-joint simplified power Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 51522.
  • 127
    Iagnocco A, Perella C, Naredo E, Meenagh G, Ceccarelli F, Tripodo E, et al. Etanercept in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical follow-up over one year by ultrasonography. Clin Rheumatol 2008; 27: 4916.
  • 128
    Salaffi F, Filippucci E, Carotti M, Naredo E, Meenagh G, Ciapetti A, et al. Inter-observer agreement of standard joint counts in early rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with grey scale ultrasonography a preliminary study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 548.
  • 129
    Naredo E, Bonilla G, Gamero F, Uson J, Carmona L, Laffon A. Assessment of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of clinical evaluation with grey scale and power Doppler ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 37581.
  • 130
    Brown AK, Quinn MA, Karim Z, Conaghan PG, Peterfy CG, Hensor E, et al. Presence of significant synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with disease-modifying antirheumatic drug–induced clinical remission: evidence from an imaging study may explain structural progression. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 376173.
  • 131
    Wakefield RJ, Freeston JE, Hensor EM, Bryer D, Quinn MA, Emery P. Delay in imaging versus clinical response: a rationale for prolonged treatment with anti–tumor necrosis factor medication in early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 15647.
  • 132
    Karim Z, Brown AK, Quinn M, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG, Emery P, et al. Ultrasound-guided steroid injections in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis: comment on the letter by Margules [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 3389.
  • 133
    Conaghan PG, D'Agostino M, Le Bars M, Baron G, Schmidely N, Wakefield R, et al. Clinical and ultrasonographic predictors of joint replacement for knee osteoarthritis: results from a large 3-year prospective EULAR study [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 Suppl 2: 231.
  • 134
    Jones A, Regan M, Ledingham J, Pattrick M, Manhire A, Doherty M. Importance of the placement of intra-articular steroid injections. BMJ 1993; 307: 132930.
  • 135
    Balint PV, Kane D, Hunter J, McInnes IB, Field M, Sturrock RD. Ultrasound guided versus conventional joint and soft tissue aspiration in rheumatology practice: a pilot study. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 220913.
  • 136
    Zingas C, Failla JM, van Holsbeeck M. Injection accuracy and clinical relief of de Quervain's tendinitis. J Hand Surg 1998; 23A: 8996.
  • 137
    Raza K, Lee CY, Pilling D, Heaton S, Situnayake RD, Carruthers DM, et al. Ultrasound guidance allows accurate needle placement and aspiration from small joints in patients with early inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 9769.
  • 138
    Naredo E, Cabero F, Beneyto P, Cruz A, Mondejar B, Uson J, et al. A randomized comparative study of short term response to injection versus sonographic-guided injection of local corticosteroids in patients with painful shoulder. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 30814.
  • 139
    Sibbitt WL Jr, Peisajovich A, Michael AA, Park KS, Sibbitt RR, Band PA, et al. Does sonographic needle guidance affect the clinical outcome of intraarticular injections? J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 1892902.
  • 140
    Grassi W, Farina A, Filippucci E, Cervini C. Sonographically guided procedures in rheumatology. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001; 30: 34753.
  • 141
    Sofka CM, Collins AJ, Adler RS. Use of ultrasonographic guidance in interventional musculoskeletal procedures. J Ultrasound Med 2001; 20: 216.
  • 142
    Koski J. Ultrasound guided injections in rheumatology. J Rheumatol 2001; 27: 21318.
  • 143
    Smith J, Wisniewski SJ, Finnoff JT, Payne JM. Sonographically guided carpal tunnel injections: the ulnar approach. J Ultrasound Med 2008; 27: 148590.
  • 144
    Migliore A, Martin SM, Alimonti A, Tormenta S. Efficacy and safety of viscosupplementation by ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection in osteoarthritis of the hip. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003; 11: 3056.
  • 145
    Pekkafahali MZ, Kiralp MZ, Basekim CC, Silit E, Mutlu H, Ozturk E, et al. Sacroiliac joint injections performed with sonographic guidance. J Ultrasound Med 2003; 22: 5539.
  • 146
    Galiano K, Obwegerer AA, Walch C, Schatzer R, Ploner F, Gruber H. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-controlled facet joint injections in the lumbar spine: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2007; 32: 31722.
  • 147
    Del Cura JL. Ultrasound-guided therapeutic procedures in the musculoskeletal system. Curr Prob Diag Radiol 2008; 37: 20318.
  • 148
    Aina R, Cardinal E, Nathalie J, Bureau NJ, Benoit Aubin B, Brassard P. Calcific shoulder tendonitis: treatment with modified US-guided fine-needle technique. Radiology 2001; 221: 45561.
  • 149
    Lin JT, Adler RS, Bracilovic A, Cooper G, Sofka C, Lutz G. Clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided aspiration and lavage in calcific tendinosis of the shoulder. Hosp Spec Surg J 2007; 3: 99105.
  • 150
    Koski JM, Helle M. Ultrasound guided synovial biopsy using portal and forceps. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 9269.
  • 151
    Scire CA, Epis O, Codullo V, Humby F, Morbini P, Manzo A, et al. Immunohistologic assessment of small joints in rheumatoid arthritis: validation of a minimally invasive ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy procedure. Arthritis Research Ther 2007; 9: R101.
  • 152
    Filippucci E, Unlu Z, Farina A, Grassi W. Sonographic training in rheumatology: a self-teaching approach. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 5657.
  • 153
    Brown AK, O'Connor PJ, Wakefield RJ, Roberts TE, Karim Z, Emery P. Practice, training, and assessment among experts performing musculoskeletal ultrasonography: toward the development of an international consensus of educational standards for ultrasonography for rheumatologists. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 101822.
  • 154
    Brown AK, O'Connor PJ, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Emery P, et al. Recommendations for musculoskeletal ultrasonography by rheumatologists: setting global standards for best practice by expert consensus. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 8392.
  • 155
    Brown AK, O'Connor PJ, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Emery P. Ultrasonography for rheumatologists: the development of specific competency based educational outcomes. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 62936.
  • 156
    Taggart A, Filippucci E, Wright G, Bell A, Cairns A, Meenagh G, et al. Musculoskeletal ultrasound training in rheumatology: the Belfast experience. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 1025.
  • 157
    Canoso JJ. Ultrasound imaging: a rheumatologist's dream. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 20634.
  • 158
    Wright SA, Bell AL. Enhancement of undergraduate rheumatology teaching through the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 15646.
  • 159
    Parker L, Nazarian LN, Carrino JA, Morrison WB, Grimaldi G, Frangos AJ, et al. Musculoskeletal imaging: medicare use, costs, and potential for cost substitution. J Am Coll Radiol 2008; 5: 1828.