SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Del Rincon I, Williams K, Stern MP, Freeman GL, Escalante A. High incidence of cardiovascular events in a rheumatoid arthritis cohort not explained by traditional cardiac risk factors. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 273745.
  • 2
    Solomon DH, Karlson EW, Rimm EB, Cannuscio CC, Mandl LA, Manson JE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation 2003; 107: 13037.
  • 3
    Aggarwal BB. Signaling pathways of the TNF superfamily: a double-edged sword. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3: 74556.
  • 4
    Firestein GS. The T cell cometh: interplay between adaptive immunity and cytokine networks in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest 2004; 114: 4714.
  • 5
    Migita K, Maeda Y, Miyashita T, Kimura H, Nakamura M, Ishibashi H, et al. The serum levels of resistin in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 698701.
  • 6
    Popa C, Netea MG, van Riel PL, van der Meer JW, Stalenhoef AF. The role of TNF-α in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk. J Lipid Res 2007; 48: 75162.
  • 7
    Tam LS, Tomlinson B, Chu TT, Li TK, Li EK. Impact of TNF inhibition on insulin resistance and lipids levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26: 14958.
  • 8
    Aggarwal BB. Tumour necrosis factors receptor associated signaling molecules and their role in activation of apoptosis, JNK and NF-κB. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59 Suppl 1: i616.
  • 9
    Bokarewa M, Nagaev I, Dahlberg L, Smith U, Tarkowski A. Resistin, an adipokine with potent proinflammatory properties. J Immunol 2005; 174: 578995.
  • 10
    Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 2006; 17: 412.
  • 11
    Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Singh S. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7: R63443.
  • 12
    Giles JT, Ling SM, Ferrucci L, Bartlett SJ, Andersen RE, Towns M, et al. Abnormal body composition phenotypes in older rheumatoid arthritis patients: association with disease characteristics and pharmacotherapies. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 80715.
  • 13
    Han C, Robinson DW Jr, Hackett MV, Paramore LC, Fraeman KH, Bala MV. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 216772.
  • 14
    Rasch EK, Hirsch R, Paulose-Ram R, Hochberg MC. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in persons 60 years of age and older in the United States: effect of different methods of case classification. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 91726.
  • 15
    Simard JF, Mittleman MA. Prevalent rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes among NHANES III participants aged 60 and older. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 46973.
  • 16
    Gabriel SE, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM. Comorbidity in arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 24759.
  • 17
    Solomon DH, Curhan GC, Rimm EB, Cannuscio CC, Karlson EW. Cardiovascular risk factors in women with and without rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 34449.
  • 18
    Svenson KL, Lundqvist G, Wide L, Hallgren R. Impaired glucose handling in active rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to the secretion of insulin and counter-regulatory hormones. Metabolism 1987; 36: 9403.
  • 19
    Dessein PH, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis versus osteoarthritis: acute phase response related decreased insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as clustering of metabolic syndrome features in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res 2002; 4: R5.
  • 20
    Matthews D, Hosker J, Rudnski A, Naylor B, Treacher D, Turner R. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 4129.
  • 21
    Dessein PH, Joffe BI. Insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 276575.
  • 22
    Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Stanwix A, Botha AS, Moomal Z. The acute phase response does not fully predict the presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in inflammatory arthritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 4626.
  • 23
    Chung CP, Oeser A, Solus JF, Avalos I, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increased in rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2008; 196: 75663.
  • 24
    Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004; 109: 4338.
  • 25
    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 53953.
  • 26
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 248697.
  • 27
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome: a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005; 366: 105962.
  • 28
    Karvounaris SA, Sidiropoulos PI, Papadakis JA, Spanakis EK, Bertsias GK, Kritikos HD, et al. Metabolic syndrome is common among middle-to-older aged Mediterranean patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with disease activity: a retrospective, cross-sectional, controlled, study. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 2833.
  • 29
    Levitzky YS, Pencina MJ, D'Agostino RB, Meigs JB, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, et al. Impact of impaired fasting glucose on cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 26470.
  • 30
    Del Rincon I, Freeman GL, Haas RW, O'Leary DH, Escalante A. Relative contribution of cardiovascular risk factors and rheumatoid arthritis clinical manifestations to atherosclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 341323.
  • 31
    Dessein PH, Tobias M, Veller MG. Metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 242532.
  • 32
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement: executive summary. Crit Pathw Cardiol 2005; 4: 198203.
  • 33
    Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002; 288: 270916.
  • 34
    Rho YH, Chung CP, Solus JF, Raggi P, Oeser A, Gebretsadik T, et al. Adipocytokines, insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 125964.
  • 35
    Pamuk ON, Unlu E, Cakir N. Role of insulin resistance in increased frequency of atherosclerosis detected by carotid ultrasonography in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 244752.
  • 36
    La Montagna G, Cacciapuoti F, Buono R, Manzella D, Mennillo GA, Arciello A, et al. Insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2007; 4: 1305.
  • 37
    Roubenoff R, Roubenoff RA, Cannon JG, Kehayias JJ, Zhuang H, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Rheumatoid cachexia: cytokine-driven hypermetabolism accompanying reduced body cell mass in chronic inflammation. J Clin Invest 1994; 93: 237986.
  • 38
    Walsmith J, Abad L, Kehayias J, Roubenoff R. Tumor necrosis factor-α production is associated with less body cell mass in women with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 239.
  • 39
    Book C, Karlsson MK, Akesson K, Jacobsson LT. Early rheumatoid arthritis and body composition. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2009; 48: 112832.
  • 40
    Bruun JM, Lihn AS, Verdich C, Pedersen SB, Toubro S, Astrup A, et al. Regulation of adiponectin by adipose tissue-derived cytokines: in vivo and in vitro investigations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003; 285: E52733.
  • 41
    Gimeno RE, Klaman LD. Adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ: recent advances. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2005; 5: 1228.
  • 42
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Llorca J, Garcia-Unzueta MT, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, De Matias JM, Martin J, et al. High-grade inflammation, circulating adiponectin concentrations and cardiovascular risk factors in severe rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 596603.
  • 43
    McInnes IB, Schett G. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Immunol 2007; 7: 42942.
  • 44
    Catalan V, Gomez-Ambrosi J, Rodriguez A, Salvador J, Fruhbeck G. Adipokines in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10: 23954.
  • 45
    Tilg H, Moschen AR. Inflammatory mechanisms in the regulation of insulin resistance. Mol Med 2008; 14: 22231.
  • 46
    Moreland LW, Schiff MH, Baumgartner SW, Tindall EA, Fleischmann RM, Bulpitt KJ, et al. Etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 47886.
  • 47
    Lipsky PE, van der Heijde DM, St Clair EW, Furst DE, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, et al. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1594602.
  • 48
    Hotamisligil GS, Murray DL, Choy LN, Spiegelman BM. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibits signaling from the insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91: 48548.
  • 49
    Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Marino MW, Hotamisligil GS. Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-α function. Nature 1997; 389: 6104.
  • 50
    Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-α: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science 1993; 259: 8791.
  • 51
    Hotamisligil GS, Arner P, Caro JF, Atkinson RL, Spiegelman BM. Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in human obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1995; 95: 240915.
  • 52
    Mohamed-Ali V, Goodrick S, Rawesh A, Katz DR, Miles JM, Yudkin JS, et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 4196200.
  • 53
    Nishimoto N, Yoshizaki K, Miyasaka N, Yamamoto K, Kawai S, Takeuchi T, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with humanized anti–interleukin-6 receptor antibody: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 17619.
  • 54
    Klover PJ, Clementi AH, Mooney RA. Interleukin-6 depletion selectively improves hepatic insulin action in obesity. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 341727.
  • 55
    Wallenius V, Wallenius K, Ahren B, Rudling M, Carlsten H, Dickson SL, et al. Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop mature-onset obesity. Nat Med 2002; 8: 759.
  • 56
    Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001; 286: 32734.
  • 57
    Oncul O, Top C, Ozkan S, Cavuslu S, Danaci M. Serum interleukin 2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlation with insulin sensitivity. J Int Med Res 2002; 30: 38690.
  • 58
    Raza K, Falciani F, Curnow SJ, Ross EJ, Lee CY, Akbar AN, et al. Early rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by a distinct and transient synovial fluid cytokine profile of T cell and stromal cell origin. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7: R78495.
  • 59
    Ziolkowska M, Koc A, Luszczykiewicz G, Ksiezopolska-Pietrzak K, Klimczak E, Chwalinska-Sadowska H, et al. High levels of IL-17 in rheumatoid arthritis patients: IL-15 triggers in vitro IL-17 production via cyclosporin A-sensitive mechanism. J Immunol 2000; 164: 28328.
  • 60
    Shin JH, Shin DW, Noh M. Interleukin-17A inhibits adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells and regulates pro-inflammatory responses in adipocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 77: 183544.
  • 61
    Otero M, Lago R, Gomez R, Dieguez C, Lago F, Gomez-Reino J, et al. Towards a pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory emerging role of leptin. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 94450.
  • 62
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Unzueta MT, Berja A, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Miranda-Filloy JA, Vazquez-Rodriguez TR, et al. Anti-TNF-α therapy does not modulate leptin in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009; 27: 2228.
  • 63
    Filkova M, Haluzik M, Gay S, Senolt L. The role of resistin as a regulator of inflammation: implications for various human pathologies. Clin Immunol 2009; 133: 15770.
  • 64
    Firestein GS. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 2003; 423: 35661.
  • 65
    Schaffler A, Ehling A, Neumann E, Herfarth H, Tarner I, Scholmerich J, et al. Adipocytokines in synovial fluid [letter]. JAMA 2003; 290: 170910.
  • 66
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Unzueta MT, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Miranda-Filloy JA, Vazquez-Rodriguez TR, De Matias JM, et al. Anti-TNF-α therapy modulates resistin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2008; 26: 3116.
  • 67
    Reilly MP, Lehrke M, Wolfe ML, Rohatgi A, Lazar MA, Rader DJ. Resistin is an inflammatory marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Circulation 2005; 111: 9329.
  • 68
    Szmitko PE, Teoh H, Stewart DJ, Verma S. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: state of the art? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007; 292: H165563.
  • 69
    Sheng T, Yang K. Adiponectin and its association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. J Genet Genomics 2008; 35: 3216.
  • 70
    Hivert MF, Sullivan LM, Fox CS, Nathan DM, D'Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW, et al. Associations of adiponectin, resistin, and TNF-α with insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 316572.
  • 71
    Ouchi N, Walsh K. Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factory. Clin Chim Acta 2007; 230: 2430.
  • 72
    Chiarugi P, Fiaschi T. Adiponectin in health and diseases: from metabolic syndrome to tissue regeneration. Expert Opin Ther Targets 2010; 14: 193206.
  • 73
    Otero M, Lago R, Gomez R, Lago F, Dieguez C, Gomez-Reino JJ, et al. Changes in plasma levels of fat-derived hormones adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 1198201.
  • 74
    Senolt L, Pavelka K, Housa D, Haluzik M. Increased adiponectin is negatively linked to the local inflammatory process in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine 2006; 35: 24752.
  • 75
    Buckingham JC. Glucocorticoids: exemplars of multi-tasking. Br J Pharmacol 2006; 147 Suppl 1: S25868.
  • 76
    Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Stanwix AE. Effects of disease modifying agents and dietary intervention on insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study. Arthritis Res 2002; 4: R12.
  • 77
    Toms TE, Panoulas VF, Douglas KM, Griffiths HR, Kitas GD. Lack of association between glucocorticoid use and presence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Res Ther 2008; 10: R145.
  • 78
    Svenson KL, Pollare T, Lithell H, Hallgren R. Impaired glucose handling in active rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to peripheral insulin resistance. Metabolism 1988; 37: 12530.
  • 79
    Dessein PH, Joffe BI, Stanwix AE, Christian BF, Veller M. Glucocorticoids and insulin sensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 86774.
  • 80
    Toms TE, Panoulas VF, John H, Douglas KM, Kitas GD. Methotrexate therapy associates with reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis patients over the age of 60: more than just an anti-inflammatory effect? A cross sectional study. Arthritis Res Ther 2009; 11: R110.
  • 81
    Zonana-Nacach A, Santana-Sahagun E, Jimenez-Balderas FJ, Camargo-Coronel A. Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol 2008; 14: 747.
  • 82
    Wasko MC, Hubert HB, Lingala VB, Elliott JR, Luggen ME, Fries JF, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and risk of diabetes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. JAMA 2007; 298: 18793.
  • 83
    Powrie JK, Smith GD, Shojaee-Moradie F, Sonksen PH, Jones RH. Mode of action of chloroquine in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol 1991; 260: E897904.
  • 84
    Van den Borne BE, Dijkmans BA, de Rooij HH, le Cessie S, Verweij CL. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine equally affect tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 5560.
  • 85
    Bondeson J, Sundler R. Antimalarial drugs inhibit phospholipase A2 activation and induction of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α in macrophages: implications for their mode of action in rheumatoid arthritis. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 30: 35766.
  • 86
    Weber SM, Levitz SM. Chloroquine interferes with lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α gene expression by a nonlysosomotropic mechanism. J Immunol 2000; 165: 153440.
  • 87
    Kyburz D, Brentano F, Gay S. Mode of action of hydroxychloroquine in RA: evidence of an inhibitory effect on toll-like receptor signaling. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2006; 2: 4589.
  • 88
    Goldman FD, Gilman AL, Hollenback C, Kato RM, Premack BA, Rawlings DJ. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits calcium signals in T cells: a new mechanism to explain its immunomodulatory properties. Blood 2000; 95: 34606.
  • 89
    Ghigo D, Aldieri E, Todde R, Costamagna C, Garbarino G, Pescarmona G, et al. Chloroquine stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in murine, porcine, and human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 595605.
  • 90
    Ahmed MH. Chloroquine-induced nitric oxide improves insulin sensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis [letter]. Med Hypotheses 2006; 66: 2089.
  • 91
    Ramser B, Kokot A, Metze D, Weiss N, Luger TA, Bohm M. Hydroxychloroquine modulates metabolic activity and proliferation and induces autophagic cell death of human dermal fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 2009; 129: 241926.
  • 92
    Jin S, White E. Tumor suppression by autophagy through the management of metabolic stress. Autophagy 2008; 4: 5636.
  • 93
    Fleischman A, Shoelson SE, Bernier R, Goldfine AB. Salsalate improves glycemia and inflammatory parameters in obese young adults. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 28994.
  • 94
    Goldfine AB, Fonseca V, Jablonski KA, Pyle L, Staten MA, Shoelson SE. The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 34657.
  • 95
    Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 1793801.
  • 96
    Araujo EP, De Souza CT, Ueno M, Cintra DE, Bertolo MB, Carvalheira JB, et al. Infliximab restores glucose homeostasis in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Endocrinology 2007; 148: 59917.
  • 97
    Rosenvinge A, Krogh-Madsen R, Baslund B, Pedersen BK. Insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effect of anti-TNFα therapy. Scand J Rheumatol 2007; 36: 916.
  • 98
    Kiortsis DN, Mavridis AK, Vasakos S, Nikas SN, Drosos AA. Effects of infliximab treatment on insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 7656.
  • 99
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, De Matias JM, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Garcia-Porrua C, Sanchez-Andrade A, Martin J, et al. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α blockade improves insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2006; 24: 836.
  • 100
    Yazdani-Biuki B, Stelzl H, Brezinschek HP, Hermann J, Mueller T, Krippl P, et al. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant subjects during prolonged treatment with the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab [letter]. Eur J Clin Invest 2004; 34: 6412.
  • 101
    Seriolo B, Paolino S, Ferrone C, Cutolo M. Effects of etanercept or infliximab treatment on lipid profile and insulin resistance in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis [letter]. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26: 1799800.
  • 102
    Oguz FM, Oguz A, Uzunlulu M. The effect of infliximab treatment on insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Clin Belg 2007; 62: 21822.
  • 103
    Schett G, Firestein GS. Mr Outside and Mr Inside: classic and alternative views on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69: 7879.