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- MATERIALS AND METHODS
- AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
- APPENDIX A
- Supporting Information
To review the literature and collect expert advice for proposing preventive and curative treatments of mouth and dental involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma).
The literature pertaining to mouth and/or dental involvement related to SSc was reviewed, and recommendations were developed according to the suggestions of a French multidisciplinary working group of experts and validated by a lecture committee.
Dentists face 3 main issues in caring for SSc patients: oral mucosa involvement, manducatory apparatus and mouth involvement responsible for limitations in mouth opening, and treatment-related adverse events. An increased risk of tongue carcinoma has been noted. In patients with severe limitation in mouth opening (<30 mm), recommended treatments are a specific mouth-opening rehabilitation program, flexible sectional dentures, and splint therapy. Indications for dental implants depend on the severity of SSc, comorbidities, and/or ongoing bisphosphonate treatment. Prevention of mouth infections and caries implies patient education and teaching about mouth and dental hygiene, periodontal maintenance, and treatment of sicca syndrome. Cessation of tobacco use is mandatory. Patient-tailored rehabilitation may improve limitations in mouth opening. Systematic dental panoramic radiography allows for the early detection of dental caries.
Prevention of oral and dental complications is a major issue in patients with SSc. Dental treatment should be tailored to limitations in mouth opening, disease severity, and ongoing treatments.