• 1
    Stahl-Hallengren C, Jonsen A, Nived O, Sturfelt G. Incidence studies of systemic lupus erythematosus in Southern Sweden: increasing age, decreasing frequency of renal manifestations and good prognosis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 68591.
  • 2
    Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Abu-Shakra M, Farewell VT. Mortality studies in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from a single center. III. Improved survival over 24 years. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 10615.
  • 3
    Abu-Shakra M, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Gough J. Mortality studies in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from a single center. II. Predictor variables for mortality. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 126570.
  • 4
    Seleznick MJ, Fries JF. Variables associated with decreased survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1991; 21: 7380.
  • 5
    Mok CC, Lee KW, Ho CT, Lau CS, Wong RW. A prospective study of survival and prognostic indicators of systemic lupus erythematosus in a southern Chinese population. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39: 399406.
  • 6
    Ginzler EM, Diamond HS, Weiner M, Schlesinger M, Fries JF, Wasner C, et al. A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Entry variables as predictors of prognosis. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 60111.
  • 7
    Swaak AJ, Nossent JC, Bronsveld W, Van Rooyen A, Nieuwenhuys EJ, Theuns L, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Outcome and survival: Dutch experience with 110 patients studied prospectively. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 44754.
  • 8
    Ibanez D, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB. Adjusted mean Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2K is a predictor of outcome in SLE. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 8247.
  • 9
    Bombardier C, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Caron D, Chang CH, and the Committee on Prognosis Studies in SLE. Derivation of the SLEDAI: a disease activity index for lupus patients. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 63040.
  • 10
    Ward MM, Pyun E, Studenski S. Long-term survival in systemic lupus erythematosus: patient characteristics associated with poorer outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 27483.
  • 11
    Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Bastian HM, Roseman J, Lisse J, Fessler BJ, et al, for the LUMINA Study Group. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups VII [correction of VIII]: predictors of early mortality in the LUMINA cohort. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 191202.
  • 12
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3639.
  • 13
    Nived O, Jonsen A, Bengtsson AA, Bengtsson C, Sturfelt G. High predictive value of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for survival in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 1398400.
  • 14
    Rahman P, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Hallett D, Tam LS. Early damage as measured by the SLICC/ACR Damage Index is a predictor of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2001; 10: 936.
  • 15
    Becker-Merok A, Nossent HC. Damage accumulation in systemic lupus erythematosus and its relation to disease activity and mortality. J Rheumatol 2006; 33: 15707.
  • 16
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis 1987; 40: 37383.
  • 17
    De Groot V, Beckerman H, Lankhorst GJ, Bouter LM. How to measure comorbidity: a critical review of available methods. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 2219.
  • 18
    Hall WH, Jani AB, Ryu JK, Narayan S, Vijayakumar S. The impact of age and comorbidity on survival outcomes and treatment patterns in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2005; 8: 2230.
  • 19
    Sorror ML, Maris MB, Storer B, Sandmaier BM, Diaconescu R, Flowers C, et al. Comparing morbidity and mortality of HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative and myeloablative conditioning: influence of pretransplantation comorbidities. Blood 2004; 104: 9618.
  • 20
    Paleri V, Wight RG. Applicability of the adult comorbidity evaluation - 27 and the Charlson indexes to assess comorbidity by notes extraction in a cohort of United Kingdom patients with head and neck cancer: a retrospective study. J Laryngol Otol 2002; 116: 2005.
  • 21
    Thombs BD, Singh VA, Halonen J, Diallo A, Milner SM. The effects of preexisting medical comorbidities on mortality and length of hospital stay in acute burn injury: evidence from a national sample of 31,338 adult patients. Ann Surg 2007; 245: 62934.
  • 22
    Monami M, Luzzi C, Lamanna C, Chiasserini V, Addante F, Desideri CM, et al. Three-year mortality in diabetic patients treated with different combinations of insulin secretagogues and metformin. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2006; 22: 47782.
  • 23
    Driver JA, Kurth T, Buring JE, Gaziano JM, Logroscino G. Parkinson disease and risk of mortality: a prospective comorbidity-matched cohort study. Neurology 2008; 70: 142330.
  • 24
    Ward MM. Development and testing of a systemic lupus-specific risk adjustment index for in-hospital mortality. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 140813.
  • 25
    Jonsson H, Nived O, Sturfelt G. Outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of patients from a defined population. Medicine (Baltimore) 1989; 68: 14150.
  • 26
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 27
    Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, Branch DW, Brey RL, Cervera R, et al. International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4: 295306.
  • 28
    Ibanez D, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD. Summarizing disease features over time. I. Adjusted mean SLEDAI derivation and application to an index of disease activity in lupus. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 197782.