|<1 minute||Higher scores indicate greater pain intensity||Good; Test–retest reliability higher among literate than illiterate rheumatology outpatients (r = 0.94 and r = 0.71, respectively)||Excellent; Sensitive to measuring changes in pain associated with treatment or time. (MCID of 1.37 cm on 10-cm pain VAS; change of 1.1 points on 11-point scale)||Acceptable/valid/reliable measure of pain intensity||May not be appropriate for use in older and/or illiterate population|
|NRS||Self-administered or interviewer- administered (by telephone)||<1 minute||No training required to administer and score||Excellent; Test–retest reliability high for both literate and illiterate rheumatology outpatients (r = 0.96 and r = 0.95 respectively)||Excellent; Construct validity: NRS highly correlated to VAS in patients with rheumatic and other chronic pain conditions. (r = >0.86)||Excellent; A reduction of 2 points, or 30%, on NRS scores is clinically important||Does not capture the complex and idiosyncratic nature of pain experience or improvements due to symptom fluctuations|
A multidimensional measure of sensory, affective and evaluative aspects of pain and pain intensity
Comprised of 78 pain descriptor items and one-item pain intensity scale
|<20 minutes||Good; Test–retest reliability in rheumatology populations is adequate (r = >0.70)|
Good; Construct validity: MPQ words positively correlated with pain VAS scores at rest and on the movement in rheumatoid arthritis patients (range 0.17–0.27).
In knee OA patients, higher MPQ scores associated with greater anxiety, depression, symptoms, and disability using the WOMAC (r = >0.30)
|Good; ES for MPQ-Pain Rating Index compared with 4-point categorical verbal rating scale and a pain VAS were 1.08 (moderate) to 1.12 (good)||Acceptable/valid/reliable measure of quality and quantity of pain using unique pain descriptors|
Good; Internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha in rheumatology population ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.
Test–retest reliability ranged from 0.45 to 0.73 at 1- and 3-month intervals. For 1–3 day intervals, test–retest was high (range: 0.79–0.93).
ICC was high for each SF-MPQ subscale, VAS average pain and total scores (ICC >0.89)
|Good; Content validity: The mean intensity scores for each SF-MPQ words ranged from 1.57 to 2.60 in rheumatology patients. In OA patients, SF-MPQ is moderately correlated with both WOMAC and SF-26 bodily pain scales (r = 0.36 and r = −0.36, respectively)|
Good; In MSK patients, SRM values for Norwegian SF-MPQ were >0.80.
Clinically important change: mean improvement in total scores >5 on the 0–45 NSF-MPQ scale
Minimum detectable change for total, sensory, affective, average and current pain are 5.2, 4.5, 2.8, 1.4, 1.4 cm
Acceptable/valid/reliable short-form version of the MPQ
Easier to use, more understandable, and takes less time to administer and complete than the longer form
|Supervision during completion required for new users|
A multidimensional pain measure that assesses 2 dimensions of overall chronic pain severity: pain intensity and pain-related disability
Subscale scores for pain intensity and disability are combined to calculate a chronic pain grade and classify chronic pain patients into 5 hierarchical categories: grades 0 (no pain) to IV (high disability-severely limiting)
|Self-administered or interviewer-administered||<10 minutes||3 subscale scores are used to classify subjects into 1 of 5 pain severity categories|
Good; Internal consistency: Cronbach's α = 0.74 in low back pain patients. In chronic MSK pain patients, Cronbach's α ranged from 0.81–0.89 for an Italian CPGS
Test–retest reliability was high after 2-week interval in UK general practice patients (weighted κ = 0.81 95% CI 0.65–0.98)
|Good; Construct validity: Spearman's correlation coefficients for CPGS and SF-36 were high for the pain dimension (r = −0.71 to −0.84) and low for the mental health dimension (r = −0.28 to −0.38)||Good; Effect sizes for CPGS intensity and disability subscales in chronic MSK patients were 0.41 and 0.43, respectively. In chronic knee or hip pain, effect size was 0.32||Acceptable, valid and reliable measure of chronic MSK pain. CPGS allows for the grading of global severity of chronic pain and qualitative changes in chronic pain over time||Complexity of scoring limits its use for assessment of pain at point of care|
|SF-36 BPS||A 2-item bodily pain scale that measures pain intensity and pain interference with normal activities. The SF-36 BP is 1 of the 8 SF-36 subscales||Self-administered, computer-administered, or interviewer-administered (in-person or by telephone)||<2 minutes||Minimal training required to administer, and score. (User's Guide available)||Higher scores indicate lack of bodily pain||Excellent; Internal consistency: Cronbach's α in hip and knee OA patients was 0.72 and 0.77, respectively. Using a Chinese version, Cronbach's α in RA patients was 0.91. Test–retest reliability was 0.78 in general practice patients and 0.82 in Chinese- speaking RA patients over a 2-week period||Good; Construct validity: proportion of patients reporting no pain on WOMAC and BPS were 32.2% and 13.6%. Correlations between WOMAC pain scale and SF-36 BPS ranged from 0.6–0.7||Acceptable; MCID in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery ranged from 16.86/100 (SD 31.83) at 6 months to 6.69/100 (SD 29.20) at 2 years. For hip replacement, MCID ranged from 14.67/100 (SD 26.46) to 18.34/100 (SD 27.06) at 6 months and 2 years respectively. MDC ranged from 37.91/100 to 38.09/100 at 6 months for hip and knee, respectively||Acceptable, valid and reliable generic measure of bodily pain that is simple to administer and use in diverse populations||May not be a useful measure to discriminate levels of pain severity and thus response to treatment|
Multidimensional scale that comprehensively evaluates the pain experience in people with hip or knee OA, independent of the effect of pain on physical function An 11-item scale evaluating 2 pain domains: constant pain and intermittent pain (pain that comes and goes)
Two supplementary questions can be used to assess the predictability of intermittent pain, when present
|Interviewer- administered (in person or by telephone) Respondents should complete both subscales||<10 minutes||No training required to administer and score. (User's Guide available)||Higher scores indicate worse pain experience||Excellent; Internal consistency: Cronbach's α was 0.93 in hip and knee OA subjects. Test–retest reliability was high in hip and knee OA subjects (ICC 0.85)||Good; Construct validity: Spearman's correlation coefficients for ICOAP scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.81 for WOMAC and KOOS, respectively||Good; For knee OA, SRMs ranged from 0.49–0.57 for ICOAP subscales. For hip OA, SRMs ranged from 0.11– 0.19. SRMs ranged from 0.84–1.02 for knee replacement and 1.50–2.29 for hip replacement||Acceptable/valid/reliable measure of the multidimensional pain experience in OA, distinct from the impact of pain on physical functioning||Only a few translated versions of the ICOAP have been assessed for validity, reliability, and responsiveness|