• 1
    Alsufyani KA, Ortiz-Alvarez O, Cabral DA, Tucker LB, Petty RE, Nadel H, et al. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 72933.
  • 2
    Huber AM, Gaboury I, Cabral DA, Lang B, Ni A, Stephure D, et al. Prevalent vertebral fractures among children initiating glucocorticoid therapy for the treatment of rheumatic disorders. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010; 62: 51626.
  • 3
    Stagi S, Masi L, Capannini S, Cimaz R, Tonini G, Matucci-Cerinic M, et al. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of bone mass in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the role of bone mass determinants in a large cohort of patients. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 193543.
  • 4
    Haugen M, Lien G, Flato B, Kvammen J, Vinje O, Sorskaar D, et al. Young adults with juvenile arthritis in remission attain normal peak bone mass at the lumbar spine and forearm. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 150410.
  • 5
    Lien G, Flato B, Haugen M, Vinje O, Sorskaar D, Dale K, et al. Frequency of osteopenia in adolescents with early-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a long-term outcome study of one hundred five patients. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 221423.
  • 6
    Makitie O, Doria AS, Henriques F, Cole WG, Compeyrot S, Silverman E, et al. Radiographic vertebral morphology: a diagnostic tool in pediatric osteoporosis. J Pediatr 2005; 146: 395401.
  • 7
    Trapani S, Civinini R, Ermini M, Paci E, Falcini F. Osteoporosis in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal study on the effect of steroids on bone mineral density. Rheumatol Int 1998; 18: 459.
  • 8
    Nakhla M, Scuccimarri R, Duffy KN, Chedeville G, Campillo S, Duffy CM, et al. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in children with chronic rheumatic diseases at risk for osteopenia. J Pediatr 2009; 154: 43843.
  • 9
    Varonos S, Ansell BM, Reeve J. Vertebral collapse in juvenile chronic arthritis: its relationship with glucocorticoid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 1987; 41: 758.
  • 10
    Regio P, Bonfa E, Takayama L, Pereira R. The influence of lean mass in trabecular and cortical bone in juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2008; 17: 78792.
  • 11
    Reyes ML, Hernandez MI, King A, Vinet AM, Vogel A, Lagomarsino E, et al. Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in children: outcome after two-year follow-up, risk factors, densitometric predictive cut-off values for vertebral fractures. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 32935.
  • 12
    Valta H, Lahdenne P, Jalanko H, Aalto K, Makitie O. Bone health and growth in glucocorticoid-treated patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 8316.
  • 13
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
  • 14
    Pritchard JM, Seechurn T, Atkinson SA. A food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K: a pilot validation study. Nutrients 2010; 2: 80519.
  • 15
    Ogden CL, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Mei Z, Guo S, Wei R, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 4560.
  • 16
    World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
  • 17
    Hay J. Development and validation of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES). Children Exerc 1997; 19: 1259.
  • 18
    Marks SD, Pilkington C, Woo P, Dillon MJ. The use of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index as a valid tool in assessing disease activity in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 11869.
  • 19
    Falcone A, Cassone R, Rossi E, Pistorio A, Martini A, Ravelli A. Inter-observer agreement of the physician's global assessment of disease activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2005; 23: 1136.
  • 20
    Rider LG, Feldman BM, Perez MD, Rennebohm RM, Lindsley CB, Zemel LS, et al, in collaboration with the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Disease Activity Collaborative Study Group. Development of validated disease activity and damage indices for the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. I. Physician, parent, and patient global assessments. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 197683.
  • 21
    Curtis JR, Westfall AO, Allison J, Bijlsma JW, Freeman A, George V, et al. Population-based assessment of adverse events associated with long-term glucocorticoid use. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 4206.
  • 22
    Dubner SE, Shults J, Baldassano RN, Zemel BS, Thayu M, Burnham JM, et al. Longitudinal assessment of bone density and structure in an incident cohort of children with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 12330.
  • 23
    Van Staa TP, Leufkens HG, Cooper C. The epidemiology of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2002; 13: 77787.
  • 24
    Genant HK, Wu CY, van Kuijk C, Nevitt MC. Vertebral fracture assessment using a semiquantitative technique. J Bone Miner Res 1993; 8: 113748.
  • 25
    Newcombe RG. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med 1998; 17: 85772.
  • 26
    Khan AA, Bachrach L, Brown JP, Hanley DA, Josse RG, Kendler DL, et al. Standards and guidelines for performing central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in premenopausal women, men, and children. J Clin Densitom 2004; 7: 5164.
  • 27
    Burnham JM, Shults J, Weinstein R, Lewis JD, Leonard MB. Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 10749.
  • 28
    Watts NB, Brown JP, Cline G. Risedronate on 2 consecutive days a month reduced vertebral fracture risk at 1 year compared with historical placebo. J Clin Densitom 2010; 13: 5662.
  • 29
    Lindsay R, Silverman SL, Cooper C, Hanley DA, Barton I, Broy SB, et al. Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year following a fracture. JAMA 2001; 285: 3203.
  • 30
    Ismail AA, Cooper C, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Kanis JA, Silman AJ, et al. Number and type of vertebral deformities: epidemiological characteristics and relation to back pain and height loss. Osteoporos Int 1999; 9: 20613.
  • 31
    Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Lui LY, Palermo L, Ensrud KE, Hillier TA, et al. Long-term risk of incident vertebral fractures. JAMA 2007; 298: 27617.
  • 32
    Lien G, Selvaag AM, Flato B, Haugen M, Vinje O, Sorskaar D, et al. A two-year prospective controlled study of bone mass and bone turnover in children with early juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 83340.
  • 33
    Armour KJ, Armour KE, van 't Hof RJ, Reid DM, Wei XQ, Liew FY, et al. Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 27906.